Open Access

Why it is Important for School-age Children to Have Breakfast – A Commentary

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Irene Rutigliano, MD
Gianpaolo De Filippo, MD, PhD
Angelo Campanozzi, MD

Objective:

In this commentary we emphasize the importance of breakfast for children, both from the point of view of proper nutritional education and as a strategy for the prevention of obesity.

Methods:

We reviewed the international literature, drawing particularly on information regarding the possible negative effects of skipping breakfast.

Results:

Obese children often do not eat breakfast and may face metabolic problems such as insulin resistance and hypercholesterolemia. The child who does not eat breakfast often becomes an adult who does not eat breakfast. The role of parents is fundamental in the acquisition of correct eating habits.

Conclusions:

The awareness that habits during childhood become elements of everyday life in adulthood, makes us understand the importance of the long-term consequences of skipping breakfast during childhood and adolescence.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 604-607(4)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.9

2020-12-30T13:58:58-07:00December 30th, 2020|Nutrition, Open Access|

Sex Differences in Body Mass Index, Mediterranean Diet Adherence, and Physical Activity Level among Italian Adolescents

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Francesca Mastorci, PhD
Cristina Doveri
Gabriele Trivellini
Anselmo Casu, BS
Luca Bastiani, BS
Alessandro Pingitore, MD, PhD,
Cristina Vassalle, PhD

Objective:

Unhealthy lifestyle habits during adolescence are linked to a higher risk of chronic degenerative disease during adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the lifestyle habits among Italian adolescents, considering the potential influence of sex.

Methods:

Data were collected from 1707 eligible students. Demographic, dietary, and lifestyle data were collected, by using KIDMED and PAQ-C instruments.

Results:

The overall population had a medium adherence to a Mediterranean diet (58%, KIDMED score: 2.11 ± 0.64). There was no statistically significant difference in adherence by sex. We found boys to be more physically active than girls (p < .001). Considering ponderal index status, boys had turned out to be more overweight and obese respectively (13% and 4% respect to 10% and 2% in female population, p < .05, respectively), due to the presence of only one risk factor (medium or low both in diet and in physical activity score).

Conclusions:

Our results showed that our population stands at average levels both for its adherence to the Mediterranean diet and for physical activity, with males having a higher percentage of overweight and obesity. Importantly, in contrast to girls, boys have a higher risk of obesity, also in the presence of a single risk factor.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 596-603(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.8

2020-12-30T13:59:50-07:00December 30th, 2020|Adolescents, Nutrition, Open Access, Physical Activity|

Assessing Fish to School Programs at 2 School Districts in Oregon

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Addison Virta, MPH, RD
David C. Love, MSPH, PhD

Objective:

Farm to school (FTS) programs provide many established benefits to students and the community; however, fish to school programs are a less studied subset of FTS. The objective was to identify how fish to school programs are implemented, their impacts, and the enabling factors to support these programs.

Methods:

We conducted formative research and interviewed stakeholders from 2 school districts in Oregon in 2019.

Results:

Interviewees reported benefits of connecting students and the larger school community with local food and creating excitement from new lunch offerings. Factors that facilitated fish to school programs included strong program leaders and partnerships, FTS grant funding, and the creative use of resources. Challenges in maintaining the program included sustainable program funding, seafood distribution networks, recipe development, and higher cost per serving of seafood compared to other proteins.

Conclusions:

Resources exist for school professionals interested in starting or sustaining fish to school programs. These programs are difficult to launch and sustain, and thus, require many forms of support (institutional, financial, industry, culinary, etc) and benefit from innovations like fish to school aggregators and product development such as pre-prepared fish options.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 557-569(13)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.5

2020-12-30T13:56:29-07:00December 30th, 2020|Nutrition, Open Access, School Health|

Healthcare Utilization and Perceived Health Status among Falun Gong Practitioners in Taiwan

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Yu-Whuei Hu, PhD
Li-Shan Huang, PhD
Eric J. Yeh, PhD
Mai He, MD, PhD

Objective:

Falun Gong (FLG) is a practice of mind and body focusing on moral character improvement that includes meditative exercises. In this study, we explored perceived health status, healthcare resource utilization, and related factors among Taiwanese FLG practitioners, compared to themselves before practicing FLG, and also to the general Taiwanese norm, as reported by the 2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Methods:

This cross-sectional study was based on a voluntary, paper-based survey conducted from October 2002 to February 2003 using the same Taiwanese SF-36 instrument employed by the NHIS. Primary outcomes included 8 SF-36 domain scores and the number of outpatient visits. One-sample t-tests, oneway ANOVA, and multivariate linear regression analyses were used.

Results:

The response rate was 75.6% (1210/1600). Compared to the norm, the study cohort had significantly higher scores in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains across sex and age (p < .05). Among those with chronic diseases, 70% to 89% reported that their conditions were improved or cured. Additionally, 74.2% and 79.2% participants stopped drinking alcohol and quit smoking; 62.7% reported decreased outpatient visits (mean before = 11.96; mean after = 5.87; norm = 14.4).

Conclusion:

In this cohort, FLG participants had higher perceived health scores than the population norm and reduced outpatient visits than before practice.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 511-531(21)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.2

When US and State Governments Go Viral: In-person Reopening of Schools during the COVID-19 Pandemic – and Then What? – A Commentary

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Robert J. McDermott, PhD Twitter

Objective:

In this commentary I argue that rapid reopening of schools for in-person instruction in the United States is unwise and likely to extend the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods:

I review various sources of information and raise issues less frequently and thoroughly addressed in noted plans to expedite school reopening.

Results:

Whereas the focus has been on preparing plans of action for in-person instruction on the first day of school that minimize risk to pupils and school personnel, aspects of these plans are operationally unsound. Additionally, opinions among school personnel and parents for rapid reopening are far from unanimous. Moreover, the potential health impact on teachers, bus drivers, and other school personnel, as well as pupils, and the potential for another shutdown are phenomena with real probability.

Conclusion:

Despite government-led arguments favoring rapid restoration of in-person instruction, I argue that school reopening should take a wiser approach, sustaining remote instruction until pandemic statistics place people at substantially reduced disease risk.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 4, July 2020, pp. 366-373(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.4.10

2020-08-21T17:27:28-06:00August 21st, 2020|COVID19, Open Access, School Health, Youth|

Effects of a School Tobacco Policy on Student Smoking and Snus Use

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Håkan Källmén, PhD
Peter Wennberg, PhD
Tove Sohlberg, PhD
Matz Larsson, PhD, MD

Objective:

A school tobacco policy (STP) commonly is used to reduce smoking among adolescents, but the effectiveness of such programs is unclear. We evaluated the impact of an STP on tobacco use in 4 schools.

Methods:

The study included 4 intervention and 4 control schools, located in the inner city of Stockholm, Sweden. Schools self-selected for assignment to either an intervention program or a comparison group. In total, the study was comprised of 2671 students in grades 9 and 11, ages 15 to 18, and 1998 students (75%) responded to the questionnaire. We used a repeated cross-sectional design with assessment of tobacco use prevalence before implementation of the STP in 2016 and after 2 years under the program, in 2018.

Results:

Two years after the STP, the intervention school in grade 9 showed a lower prevalence (13.5% vs 1.6%) in the proportion of students who reported smoking (χ2 = 4.54; p < .05) whereas the proportion reporting snus use was practically unchanged. We found no statistically significant impact of the STP for grade 11.

Conclusion:

The results are promising with regard to smoking, when the STP is implemented in early adolescence.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 4, July 2020, pp. 358-365(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.4.9

2020-08-21T17:36:10-06:00August 21st, 2020|Open Access, School Health, Tobacco|

“How Long Will Covid-19 Last?” And Other Questions Youth Ask Physicians about COVID-19

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Vanya Jones, PHD, MPH Twitter
Audrey Johnson, MBA
Megan Collins, MD, MPH
Panagis Galiatsatos, MD, MHS
Jacqueline Bryan
Susan Krenn, BA
Sherita H. Golden, MD, MHS
Alicia Wilson, JD

Objective:

In this investigation, we identify the questions youth in a low-income urban community asked healthcare providers about COVID-19.

Methods:

This formative qualitative study consisted of analyzing data collected using Poll Everywhere as part of 3 phone town halls with a pulmonary and critical care medicine physician and youth.

Results:

During the 3 town halls, there were 143 participants who asked 43 questions that were divided into 4 codes: Healthcare, Cure, General COVID-19, and Prevention.

Conclusion:

Youth have questions about healthy behaviors and treatment that can be answered in a low technology forum engagement with health professionals. These results also underscore the need to continue health education discussions either through traditional school-based or alternate formats, especially as we anticipate COVID-19 to last during the next academic year.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 4, July 2020, pp. 342-346(5)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.4.7

2020-08-21T17:34:50-06:00August 21st, 2020|COVID19, Open Access, Youth|

COVID-19 School Closures: Implications for Pediatric Diabetes Management – A Commentary

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Rohit Jaswaney, BA Twitter
Jessica P. Cerdeña, MPhil Twitter

Objective:

The United States COVID-19 outbreak shuttered public and private schools, confining more than 55.1 million students to their homes. In this paper, we discuss the unique vulnerabilities faced by families affected by pediatric diabetes as well as structural issues exposed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods:

Drawing on clinical and anthropological expertise, we review the unintended consequences of remote schooling for management of pediatric diabetes and other chronic health conditions.

Results:

We identify multiple barriers to pediatric diabetes care imposed by conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. We propose a 4-tiered policy solution that aims to improve crisis response and to protect the health of children with chronic conditions, like diabetes, long-term.

Conclusion:

The COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated wide disruptions to schooling, employment, finances, and transportation, placing enormous burdens on families that care for a child with diabetes. Comprehensive policies supporting integrated diabetes care, student accommodations in remote learning conditions, extended medication
supplies, and increased healthcare access would not only prevent adverse outcomes for children with diabetes in crisis settings, but also lay a durable foundation needed to increase health equity of all children living with chronic conditions.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 4, July 2020, pp. 325-328(4)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.4.5

2020-08-21T17:33:03-06:00August 21st, 2020|COVID19, Open Access, School Health, Youth|

Laws and Policies Related to the Health of US Immigrants: A Policy Scan

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Scott D. Rhodes, PhD, MPH, FAAHB Twitter
Lilli Mann-Jackson, MPH
Eunyoung Y. Song, PhD
Mark Wolfson, PhD
Alexandra Filindra, PhD
Mark A. Hall, JD

Objective:

We conducted a policy scan of state and local laws and policies across the United States (US) related to social determinants of health among immigrants.

Methods:

We collected all state and municipal laws and policies in 10 domains that had the potential to affect immigrant health from all 50 US states and the 30 most populous US metropolitan statistical areas. We coded these laws and policies and created an index of restrictiveness and supportiveness of immigrants.

Results:

We identified 539 state and 322 municipal laws and policies. The most common restrictive state laws and policies were in the domains of identification requirements and driver’s license access. The most common supportive state laws and policies were in the domains of health services and higher education access. The most common restrictive municipal laws and policies were in the domains of identification requirements and immigration policy enforcement. The most common supportive municipal laws and policies were in the domains of immigration policy enforcement and health services access.

Conclusion:

Most states had index scores reflecting policy environments that were primarily restrictive of immigrants, indicating potential negative impacts on social determinants of health. Further research examining the impact of these on health behaviors is warranted.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 4, July 2020, pp. 314-324(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.4.4

2020-08-21T17:29:50-06:00August 21st, 2020|Immigration Health, Law, Open Access|

Creating Healthy Schools with Middle School Students as Change Makers

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Elaine S. Belansky, PhD Twitter
Kathleen Lohmiller, PhD
Benjamin C. Ingman, PhD
Nick Cutforth, PhD
Sharon Scarbro, MS
Laura Borley, MS

Objective:

The Working Together Project (WTP) is a classroom-based curriculum in which rural, low-income middle school students completed “Assess. Identify. Make it Happen,” a strategic planning process to improve student health by implementing evidence-based initiatives. The curriculum consisted of 30, 55-minute lessons and 28 “workdays” for students to conduct research, create communication materials, and develop presentations. Study goals were to: (1) assess the extent to which the WTP led to the implementation of evidence-based practices; and (2) describe student-level outcomes that resulted from participating in the WTP.

Methods:

We conducted a quasi-experimental, convergent mixed-methods study with 4 intervention and 2 control middle schools located in a low-income, rural region. We carried out pre/post student surveys and interviews with teachers, principals, and students.

Results:

Two of the 4 intervention schools completed the entire curriculum and implemented evidence-based practices. Students in control schools showed a decline in school connection, academic engagement, and knowledge of health problems, whereas students in the intervention arm showed increases in personal responsibility to solve problems, 21st century skills, school connectedness, and program planning skills.

Conclusion:

When implemented fully, the WTP is a promising youth-led, adult-supported strategy for implementing evidence-based practices to promote health in schools.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 3, May 2020, pp. 260-270(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.3.10

2020-06-25T11:39:36-06:00June 20th, 2020|Adolescents, Open Access, School Health|
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