An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.


Carol J. Boyd, PhD Twitter
Sean Esteban McCabe, PhD
Rebecca J. Evans-Polce, PhD
Terri Voepel-Lewis, PhD
Clayton Shuman, PhD
Philip Veliz, PhD


We aimed to characterize male and female adolescents’ use of e-cigarettes, cigarettes and dual use, and 7 symptoms of nicotine/tobacco dependence using 4 waves of national data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study.


The analytic sample included 2902 adolescents 12-17 years old, who indicated past 30-day e-cigarette or cigarette use at least once between 2013-2018. We used items from the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) to report dependence symptoms.


Compared to cigarette users, exclusive e-cigarette users reported fewer symptoms of nicotine dependency. There were no differences between males and females concerning the odds of any reported dependency symptom. Among cigarette only users, the odds of indicating that their tobacco use helps them think better (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.08, 5.23) and wanting tobacco after waking up (AOR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10, 27.5) was higher among females versus males.


These results extend earlier findings regarding subgroup differences in nicotine/tobacco dependency symptoms participating in the PATH Study and highlights the importance of identifying nicotine/tobacco dependency symptoms when counseling adolescent males and females.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 4, July 2022, pp. 980-995(16)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.