An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.


Christine G. Cardinal, JD, MPH
Jennifer A. Bunn, PhD
Isaac Schley, MPH
Daphne S. Fulton, DrPH
Rosanne Keathley, PhD


We surveyed 287 American women from April 2020 until the November 2020 presidential election to evaluate their primary news source, beliefs on the constitutionality of mask-wearing and stay-at-home orders, government’s ability to implement public health orders, and political affiliation.


Qualtrics surveys were distributed on social media. Using a chi-square test of independence, we evaluated differences by age groups, ethnicity, and education.


Age, ethnicity, and education were all statistically related to beliefs about public health initiatives.


These results can help tailor public health interventions, policies, and laws focused on compliance with public health initiatives aimed at reducing the spread of the virus.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 2, March 2022, pp. 751-764(14)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.