The Impact of COVID-19 on Pre-K-12 Students and Staff in a Mid-sized Metropolitan Area

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Paul R. Teran, MD
Julia Kononowicz, MD
Stephanie Kuhlmann, DO
Julian Dedeaux, PhD
Kari Harris, MD

Objective:

During fall 2020, schools used a variety of learning modes based on anticipated risk of viral transmission within schools.

Methods:

De-identified SARS-CoV-2 data from 11 school districts in the Wichita, Kansas metropolitan area from August 1 to November 15, 2020, was collated for analysis. The Sedgwick County Health Department (SCHD) and Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) databases were accessed for community-level and contact tracing data.

Results:

Altogether, 13,573 staff and 54,479 students receiving full or partial on-site (hybrid) education were included. Few students (1.4%) or staff (4.7%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. District rates varied from 0.1% to 3.3% in students and 0.7% to 8.7% in staff. Students in grades 9-12 had a higher rate of positive tests and cases were more likely linked to school-based exposure. Staff rate by grade level did not show an identifiable trend; staff rates were higher in non-attendance centers.

Conclusions:

Low SARS-CoV-2 student case rates suggests on-site learning formats may be appropriate. School trends reflected community rate reinforcing that community-level interventions are necessary to decrease transmission. As new variants arise, transmission characteristics must be studied. Health and education partnership is important to ensure the greatest well-being for students and staff.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 6, November 2021, pp. 575-584(10)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.6.8

2021-12-30T21:40:08-07:00December 30th, 2021|COVID19, School Health|

Face Mask Policies of US Public School Districts in States without Statewide Mandates

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Philip Jacobs, PhD
Arvi Ohinmaa

Objective:

We developed categories of the degree of restrictiveness of public schoolboards’ face mask policies in 10 US states that had no statewide mask mandates at any time during the COVID-19 pandemic. We collected data on schoolboards’ mask wearing policies for the individual boards in these states.

Methods:

We obtained school reopening plans found on school district webpages. We abstracted district mask policies and sorted them into groups indicating whether mask wearing was required or recommended.

Results:

Overall, 44% of boards mandated masks in school settings. There was a wide variation of policies within and between states.

Conclusions:

When left to their own resources, schoolboards will follow a variety of policies, many of which are a departure from state recommendations.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 5, September 2021, pp. 422-428(7)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.5.3

2021-10-27T17:15:38-06:00October 27th, 2021|COVID19, School Health|

A Cross-sectional Survey of Chinese Secondary School Students on Infectious Disease Prevention during the COVID-19 Outbreak

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Haitian Qiu
Zhongwei Liu, PhD
Haiyun Fang, MA

Objective:

Improving secondary school students’ knowledge and behaviors toward infectious dis- ease prevention is key to promoting their health. In this study, we evaluated secondary school students’ infectious disease prevention literacy, determined the sources of knowledge acquisition, and identified deficiencies in education programs.

Methods:

A questionnaire was disseminated through social media from February 1-5, 2020, starting from selected class group chats of stu- dents in Shaanxi, Gansu, and Jiangsu provinces. A total of 1761 responses were collected. The male-to-female ratio was 1.08:1. The chi-square test was employed to analyze data.

Results:

Most respondents reported that they were familiar with the standard 7-step handwashing method. Most respondents reported that their knowledge and behaviors of infectious disease prevention were mainly acquired through the Internet. The vast majority of respondents believed that more educa- tion programs are needed in secondary schools.

Conclusions:

Secondary school students’ knowl- edge and behaviors toward infectious disease prevention need to be improved. Infectious disease prevention programs on campuses should be increased in quantity, enriched in scope, refined in form, and improved in coherence and continuity.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 4, July 2021, pp. 353-364(12)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.4.7

2021-08-26T16:32:16-06:00August 26th, 2021|COVID19, School Health|

Time to Scale-up Research Collaborations to Address the Global Impact of COVID-19 – A Commentary

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Authors:

Annie Lu Nguyen, PhD, MPH Twitter
Brandon Brown, PhD, MPH
Maha El Tantawi, PhD
Nicaise Ndembi, PhD
Joseph Okeibunor, PhD
Abdulaziz Mohammed, MD
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, DMD

Objective:

In this commentary, we suggest that the unprecedented global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic provides a compelling reason for researchers to stretch beyond usual limits and find new ways to engage in global collaborations.

Methods:

We point to data that have emerged on the mental health and economic consequences of the pandemic to illustrate the extent to which these common issues cross national borders. There is high likelihood that these burdens will continue to persist long after the pandemic is declared “over.”

Results:

We urge researchers, particularly those from countries with higher income economies, to share resources to increase international collaborative research efforts. We present a case study of an ongoing project and offer some lessons learned for individual investigators.

Conclusions:

Global problems require global solutions. The COVID-19 pandemic is a global crisis that should prompt researchers to engage in science and research across national borders.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 277-280(4)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.9

2021-06-30T21:28:53-06:00June 30th, 2021|COVID19, Research Methods|

Children’s Physical Activity and Screen Time during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Exploration of Parent Perceptions

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Authors:

Amy A. Eyler, PhD CHES
Laurel Schmidt, BS
Alan Beck, PhD, CHES
Amanda Gilbert, MPH
Maura Kepper, PhD
Stephanie Mazzucca, PhD

Objective:

In this study, we explore parent perception of children’s physical activity and screen time during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders.

Methods:

We interviewed 16 parents of children ages 5-12 years in the St. Louis, Missouri region using snowball sampling. We sampled from rural, urban, and suburban areas. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a priori and emergent codes.

Results:

The transition to virtual school and work transformed daily activities. Physical education requirements varied, generally perceived as not contributing to overall physical activity. Parents perceived the amount of physical activity as the same or increased but reported an increase in screen time. The physical environment of the home, yard, and neighborhood emerged as a theme as did the social environment for physical activity.

Conclusions:

COVID-19 stay-at-home orders created challenges for children’s physical activity. Results can be used to inform more generalizable studies and serve as a basis for creating better parent resources to support their children’s physical activity outside of ordinary school, sport, and community activity opportunities.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 236-246(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.5

2021-06-30T21:25:19-06:00June 30th, 2021|COVID19, Physical Activity|

An Evidence Base for School Health Policy during the COVID-19 Pandemic

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Saif Badran, MD, MRCS(Ed)*
Omran A.H. Musa, MA* Twitter
Somaya Al-maadeed, PhD, SMIEE
Egon Toft, MD, PhD
Suhail A. Doi, MBBS, PhD

* These authors contributed equally.

Objective:

Children represent a small fraction of confirmed COVID-19 cases, with a low case fatality rate (CFR). In this paper, we lay out an evidence-based policy for reopening schools.

Methods:

We gathered age-specific COVID-19 case counts and identified mortality data for 14 countries. Dose-response meta-analysis was used to examine the relationship of the incremental case fatality rate (CFR) to age. In addition, an evidence-to-decision framework (EtD) was used to correlate the dose-response data with other epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in childhood.

Results:

In the dose-response analysis, we found that there was an almost negligible fatality below age 18. CFR rose little between ages 5 to 50 years. The confidence intervals were narrow, suggesting relative homogeneity across countries. Further data suggested decreased child-hood transmission from respiratory droplets and a low viral load among children.

Conclusions:

Opening up schools and kindergartens is unlikely to impact COVID-19 case or mortality rates in both the child and adult populations. We outline a robust plan for schools that recommends that general principles not be micromanaged, with authority left to schools and monitored by public health authorities.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 1, January 2021, pp. 40-47(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.1.4

2021-04-29T22:02:20-06:00February 22nd, 2021|COVID19, Health Policy, School Health|

Zoom (Virtual) Happy Hours and Drinking During COVID-19 in the US An Exploratory Qualitative Study

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Sheila Pakdaman, MS Twitter
John D. Clapp, PhD, MSW

Objective:

In this study, we investigated video conferencing platforms (eg, Zoom) used as a means to gather virtually as a unique drinking environment during the pandemic.

Methods:

Using online recruitment strategies, we conducted 42 qualitative Zoom® interviews. Interviewees were 21-64 years of age from various locations in the United States.

Results:

During the pandemic, most individuals reported higher drinking intake to offset boredom and stress. As a drinking environment, video conferencing calls were perceived as poor substitutes for in-person drinking interactions.

Conclusions:

Our data suggest drinking behaviors and contexts changed during the pandemic restrictions, but virtual happy hours did not drive this change.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 1, January 2021, pp. 3-12(10)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.1.1

2021-04-29T22:05:37-06:00February 22nd, 2021|Alcohol, COVID19|

COVID-19 and People Who Use Drugs – A Commentary

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Suzan M. Walters, PhD Twitter
David W. Seal, PhD, FAAHB
Thomas J. Stopka, PhD, MHS
Megan E. Murphy, BS
Wiley D. Jenkins, PhD, MPH, FACE

Objective:

People who use drugs (PWUD) face increased risk of exposure to COVID-19, but also elevated risk associated from injection drug use. We describe factors underlying their increased risk and identify mechanisms for reducing or minimizing rates of COVID-19 transmission and other health outcomes.

Methods:

Our commentary draws upon empirical data, governmental and other reports, and field-based unpublished data from our own studies to inform our conclusion and recommendations.

Results:

Co-morbid health conditions (eg, diabetes), structural challenges (eg, homelessness, criminal justice involvement), stigma (eg, social devaluation, discrediting), and syndemic clustering of of overdose, HCV, and HIV among PWUD are exacerbated by COVID-19.

Conclusion:

Beyond the many challenges all people face to remain safe and healthy during the COVID-19 pandemic, PWUD face additional barriers to remaining safe not only from COVID-19 but from negative health outcomes associated with their living environments, socioeconomic positions, and injection drug use. Collaborative efforts among governmental agencies, health providers, SSPs, CBOs, and other agencies providing services to PWUD is essential to the development of programs and services to meet the many needs of PWUD, which have been particularly accentuated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 5, October 2020, pp. 489-497(9)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.5.11

2021-04-29T22:13:10-06:00October 15th, 2020|COVID19, Substance Use|

When US and State Governments Go Viral: In-person Reopening of Schools during the COVID-19 Pandemic – and Then What? – A Commentary

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Robert J. McDermott, PhD Twitter

Objective:

In this commentary I argue that rapid reopening of schools for in-person instruction in the United States is unwise and likely to extend the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods:

I review various sources of information and raise issues less frequently and thoroughly addressed in noted plans to expedite school reopening.

Results:

Whereas the focus has been on preparing plans of action for in-person instruction on the first day of school that minimize risk to pupils and school personnel, aspects of these plans are operationally unsound. Additionally, opinions among school personnel and parents for rapid reopening are far from unanimous. Moreover, the potential health impact on teachers, bus drivers, and other school personnel, as well as pupils, and the potential for another shutdown are phenomena with real probability.

Conclusion:

Despite government-led arguments favoring rapid restoration of in-person instruction, I argue that school reopening should take a wiser approach, sustaining remote instruction until pandemic statistics place people at substantially reduced disease risk.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 4, July 2020, pp. 366-373(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.4.10

2021-04-29T22:14:12-06:00August 21st, 2020|COVID19, Open Access, School Health, Youth|

“How Long Will Covid-19 Last?” And Other Questions Youth Ask Physicians about COVID-19

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Vanya Jones, PHD, MPH Twitter
Audrey Johnson, MBA
Megan Collins, MD, MPH
Panagis Galiatsatos, MD, MHS
Jacqueline Bryan
Susan Krenn, BA
Sherita H. Golden, MD, MHS
Alicia Wilson, JD

Objective:

In this investigation, we identify the questions youth in a low-income urban community asked healthcare providers about COVID-19.

Methods:

This formative qualitative study consisted of analyzing data collected using Poll Everywhere as part of 3 phone town halls with a pulmonary and critical care medicine physician and youth.

Results:

During the 3 town halls, there were 143 participants who asked 43 questions that were divided into 4 codes: Healthcare, Cure, General COVID-19, and Prevention.

Conclusion:

Youth have questions about healthy behaviors and treatment that can be answered in a low technology forum engagement with health professionals. These results also underscore the need to continue health education discussions either through traditional school-based or alternate formats, especially as we anticipate COVID-19 to last during the next academic year.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 4, July 2020, pp. 342-346(5)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.4.7

2021-04-29T22:17:23-06:00August 21st, 2020|COVID19, Open Access, Youth|
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