School Health

School Nurses’ Perspectives of Bullying Involvement of Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Sally S. Cohen, PhD, RN, FAAN
Laura Grunin, MSN, RN
Timothy C. Guetterman, PhD, MA

Objective:

Our primary objective was to understand bullying as it pertains to middle school students with chronic physical or behavioral health conditions by examining it through the lens of school nurses. A second objective was to understand issues pertaining to implementation of New York’s bullying prevention law with a focus on these same students.

Methods:

We employed a qualitative descriptive design with purposive sampling to explore perspectives of school nurses in New York State who worked in public middle schools. Using a semi-structured protocol, we conducted audio-recorded telephone interviews that were transcribed for subsequent thematic analysis.

Results:

Twelve nurses agreed to be interviewed. Results revealed participants’ under- standing of bullying as related to students with chronic health conditions, especially those with behavioral health issues. Results also showed nurses’ limited understanding of New York’s bullying prevention law and missed opportunities for school nurses as champions of students with chronic health conditions who are bullied.

Conclusions:

Education and health care professionals should collaborate to disseminate information to school personnel about the risks of bullying for students with chronic health conditions and operationalize plans for prevention.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 3, May 2022, pp. 877-893(17)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.3.5

2022-06-11T16:22:28-06:00June 11th, 2022|Adolescents, Mental Health, School Health|

Weight Perception and Weight Control Behavior among Florida High School Students

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Deana A. Hildebrand, PhD, RD
Jeremy Humphrey, MS
Lindsi Lemons, MPH

Objective:

Actions adopted by adolescents to control their weight are motivated by their body weight perception. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between body weight perception and weight control behavior among Florida public high school students.

Methods:

We analyzed data from the 2015 Florida Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 3798). We used chi-square test to detect group differences among survey respondents and multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between weight perception and weight control behavior.

Results:

Most survey respondents adopted healthy actions such as exercise and diet, 75.3% and 55.0%, respectively, and few used unhealthy ones as weight control means, such as fasting, use of diet products, and purging, 15.6%, 7.3%, and 6.5% respectively. Compared to respondents who considered themselves as having the right weight, there were higher odds of engaging in healthy activities only in respondents who considered themselves as being overweight while there were higher odds of engaging in unhealthy actions in respondents perceiving themselves as underweight and in those viewing themselves as overweight.

Conclusions:

High school health education courses should include modules educating students on the importance of having accurate knowledge about body weight and adopting a healthy weight control behavior.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 2, March 2022, pp. 815-827(13)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.2.8

2022-04-11T11:30:35-06:00April 11th, 2022|Health Policy, Lifestyle, School Health|

Non-profit Coordinated School Health Program Achieves Student Outcomes in Both Beginning and Experienced Schools

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Deana A. Hildebrand, PhD, RD
Jeremy Humphrey, MS
Lindsi Lemons, MPH

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an ongoing health promotion program to sustain student outcomes over an extended period, and to determine if student outcomes are affected by the schools’ duration of program participation.

Methods:

The repeat- measures study used secondary data from Healthy Schools Oklahoma for School Years 2016-2019. FITNESSGRAM® assessed changes in student fitness levels (N = 12,219); an electronic health survey assessed changes in knowledge and behaviors (N = 6840). McNemar tests examined change in the proportion of students reaching the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) for 6 FITNESSGRAM® tests, and the proportion of students with accurate knowledge or meeting dietary and physical activity recommendations. Poisson regression tested for change in student outcomes based on duration of program participation.

Results:

The proportion of students reaching HFZ increased for 5 of 6 fitness tests (p ≤ .004) and with accurate nutrition and physical education knowledge (p ≤ .009). We found statistically significant main effects for outcomes (p ≤ .016) and duration (p ≤ .030); there was no effect for the interaction.

Conclusions:

Students achieved similar gains in outcomes regardless of the schools’ duration of program participation.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 2, March 2022, pp. 765-775(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.2.4

2022-03-30T22:10:15-06:00March 30th, 2022|Nutrition, Physical Activity, School Health|

Using Digital Platforms in Schools for Prevention and Health Promotion: A Scoping Review

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Christian Dagenais, PhD
Michelle Proulx, PhD
Esther Mc Sween-Cadieux, PhD

Objective:

Digital platforms for prevention and health promotion (PHP) are now, more than ever, available for use by school professionals, including teachers. However, little is known about what motivates them to use such platforms. A scoping review (ScR) was conducted to identify conditions that promote use by school professionals, including teachers, of PHP digital platforms at schools.

Methods:

For our ScR, we accessed ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases (period 2000-2018) in 3 sectors: education, health, online technologies. For each study, we prepared and validated a summary sheet. Contents dealing with conditions for use were subjected to open coding, grouped into categories, and synthesized.

Results:

Of the 3639 articles captured, 17 studies were selected. Five conditions emerged: (1) ensuring that the digital platform becomes a reference for PHP activity in schools; (2) that the resources needed for its uptake are mobilized; (3) that it is user-friendly; (4) that the digital platform engages the participation of everyone involved; and (5) that it is linked to existing programs in the school.

Conclusions:

These results can guide the activities deployed in schools for optimal implementation of PHP programs from digital platforms.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 2, March 2022, pp. 719-737(19)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.2.1

2022-04-05T11:22:21-06:00March 30th, 2022|School Health, Technology Use|

The Impact of COVID-19 on Pre-K-12 Students and Staff in a Mid-sized Metropolitan Area

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Paul R. Teran, MD
Julia Kononowicz, MD
Stephanie Kuhlmann, DO
Julian Dedeaux, PhD
Kari Harris, MD

Objective:

During fall 2020, schools used a variety of learning modes based on anticipated risk of viral transmission within schools.

Methods:

De-identified SARS-CoV-2 data from 11 school districts in the Wichita, Kansas metropolitan area from August 1 to November 15, 2020, was collated for analysis. The Sedgwick County Health Department (SCHD) and Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) databases were accessed for community-level and contact tracing data.

Results:

Altogether, 13,573 staff and 54,479 students receiving full or partial on-site (hybrid) education were included. Few students (1.4%) or staff (4.7%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. District rates varied from 0.1% to 3.3% in students and 0.7% to 8.7% in staff. Students in grades 9-12 had a higher rate of positive tests and cases were more likely linked to school-based exposure. Staff rate by grade level did not show an identifiable trend; staff rates were higher in non-attendance centers.

Conclusions:

Low SARS-CoV-2 student case rates suggests on-site learning formats may be appropriate. School trends reflected community rate reinforcing that community-level interventions are necessary to decrease transmission. As new variants arise, transmission characteristics must be studied. Health and education partnership is important to ensure the greatest well-being for students and staff.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 6, November 2021, pp. 575-584(10)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.6.8

2021-12-30T21:40:08-07:00December 30th, 2021|COVID19, School Health|

Effective Elements of School-based Provision for the Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles: A European Delphi Study

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Richard Bailey, PhD
Iva Glibo, MSc
Claude Scheuer, PhD Twitter

Objective:

Schools can serve as settings for promoting their student health, although it is necessary to identify the key elements of provision to leverage change. This study’s objective was to develop a Europe-based list of the elements of learning and health support systems judged by a group of experts to be most effective in influencing school student healthy lifestyles education.

Methods:

A 3-stage Delphi study involving a group of 18 Europe-based subject specialists was used to articulate shared expert opinions on the main research question: what are the most effective elements of learning and health support systems influencing school students’ healthy lifestyles education? Over 3 rounds of data-gathering, experts were asked to assess the effectiveness of 25 specific elements.

Results:

The 3 rounds resulted in the following ranked list: Physical Education (PE), Staff Professional Development, Healthy School Policies, Active Recess, Family & Community Engagement, Healthy Eating, Physical Activity in Classroom Lessons, and Active Transport.

Conclusions:

Cautious of overly generalizing from the results, we suggest the findings offer useful information for evidence-based programs, as well as future research that explores the necessary components of health promotion in schools.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 6, November 2021, pp. 546-557(12)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.6.5

2021-12-30T21:35:45-07:00December 30th, 2021|Lifestyle, School Health|

Hallways to Health: School Health Beyond School-Based Health Center Walls

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Sara Geierstanger, MPH
Jordanna Snyder, MPH, CHES Twitter
Hayley Love, PhD, MSc
Andrea Shore, MPH
John Schlitt, MSW

Objective:

In this paper, we describe the implementation and outcomes of an initiative that engaged school-based health centers (SBHCs) in a learning community to create programmatic and policy school health changes beyond the health center walls.

Methods:

Sixty respondents completed impact surveys and 13 coalitions completed progress reports to document schoolwide wellness efforts and outcomes in stakeholder engagement, student healthy eating and active living, student social and emotional wellness, and school staff wellness.

Results:

Respondents reported pre- to post-intervention improvements in stakeholder engagement, including school administration promotion of school health policies (from 64% to 95%), and teacher participation in SBHC sponsored activities (from 63% to 98%). They reported schoolwide policy and programmatic achievements including increased opportunities for physical activity for students during school hours (from 55% to 85%), access to behavioral health counseling and support services to all students, either on-site or through referrals (from 62% to 89%), and offering healthy food or nutrition education to staff (from 10% to 73%).

Conclusions:

SBHC staff, school employees, and community members can work collaboratively to assess student physical and mental health needs, and develop and implement school policies and programs beyond the clinic walls.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 6, November 2021, pp. 503-513(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.6.2

2021-12-30T21:34:00-07:00December 30th, 2021|Implementation, Program Planning, School Health|

Supporting Mental Health in School Settings: Findings from a Qualitative Evaluation

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Linda Weiss, PhD
Marilyn Jacob, PhD, LCSW
Maya Scherer, MPH
Anna Borkina, MS

Objective:

In this paper, we describe results from stakeholder interviews conducted to assess implementation and perceived outcomes of a project, implemented in 92 New York City middle and high schools, and focused on building the mental health-related skills of school personnel and promotion of healthier school environments.

Methods:

As part of a mixed-methods evaluation, we conducted 59 key stakeholder interviews with staff of participating community-based organizations and schools. Interview topics included mental health needs, project activities, engagement by school staff, strengths and challenges of the initiative, and perceived impact.

Results:

At the start of the project, interviewees reported difficulty comprehending the model and accepting its utility, given the direct service needs of students. Although concerns remained, we found positive impact, including increased awareness of mental health issues and their root causes, a greater sensitivity to students’ social and emotional challenges, and improved capacity to manage behavioral issues in the classroom.

Conclusions:

Although targeted approaches are needed for high-risk youth, population-level approaches may increase mental health knowledge and skills and support transformation leading to healthier school environments.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 5, September 2021, pp. 429-437(9)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.5.4

2021-10-27T18:54:25-06:00October 27th, 2021|Mental Health, School Health|

Face Mask Policies of US Public School Districts in States without Statewide Mandates

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Philip Jacobs, PhD
Arvi Ohinmaa

Objective:

We developed categories of the degree of restrictiveness of public schoolboards’ face mask policies in 10 US states that had no statewide mask mandates at any time during the COVID-19 pandemic. We collected data on schoolboards’ mask wearing policies for the individual boards in these states.

Methods:

We obtained school reopening plans found on school district webpages. We abstracted district mask policies and sorted them into groups indicating whether mask wearing was required or recommended.

Results:

Overall, 44% of boards mandated masks in school settings. There was a wide variation of policies within and between states.

Conclusions:

When left to their own resources, schoolboards will follow a variety of policies, many of which are a departure from state recommendations.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 5, September 2021, pp. 422-428(7)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.5.3

2021-10-27T17:15:38-06:00October 27th, 2021|COVID19, School Health|

Implementing Statewide Health Surveillance in Schools: Processes and Lessons Learned from the Texas SPAN Project

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Katherine A. Elder, PhD, MPAff
Carolyn Smith, BS
Claire Niday, MPH
Alison Winters Massie, DrPH
Amanda M. Reat, PhD, RD
Amier Haidar, BS
Michelle L. Cook, PhD, MPH
Deanna M. Hoelscher, PhD, RDN, LD, CNS, FISBNPA

Objective:

Prevalence of obesity among youth has increased in the last several decades. Using schools as a place to collect data on childhood obesity is considered by many researchers to be an important component to combating the disease. In this paper, we present process data from the Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) project, a statewide surveillance system to monitor the prevalence of Texas school-aged children who have overweight/obesity.

Methods:

We selected 3 Public Health Regions (PHRs), including 30 districts and 140 schools, to represent geographic variability of processes of conducting this surveillance system. We tracked and analyzed administrative and communicative processes to conduct the Texas SPAN in those districts/schools.

Results:

The results demonstrate significant procedural variability across and within PHRs in implementing Texas SPAN. These variations occurred and are presented at both the district and school levels and relate to parental consent, communication processes, and time lags involved in approval and measurement.

Conclusions:

Due to the variability in the process data observed across and within PHRs, we recommend researchers interested in establishing obesity surveillance systems work to create statewide and local partnerships, cultivate strong communication, and develop mechanisms for data management.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 5, September 2021, pp. 412-421(10)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.5.2

2021-10-27T17:09:44-06:00October 27th, 2021|Community Health, School Health|
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