A Cross-sectional Survey of Chinese Secondary School Students on Infectious Disease Prevention during the COVID-19 Outbreak

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Haitian Qiu
Zhongwei Liu, PhD
Haiyun Fang, MA

Objective:

Improving secondary school students’ knowledge and behaviors toward infectious dis- ease prevention is key to promoting their health. In this study, we evaluated secondary school students’ infectious disease prevention literacy, determined the sources of knowledge acquisition, and identified deficiencies in education programs.

Methods:

A questionnaire was disseminated through social media from February 1-5, 2020, starting from selected class group chats of stu- dents in Shaanxi, Gansu, and Jiangsu provinces. A total of 1761 responses were collected. The male-to-female ratio was 1.08:1. The chi-square test was employed to analyze data.

Results:

Most respondents reported that they were familiar with the standard 7-step handwashing method. Most respondents reported that their knowledge and behaviors of infectious disease prevention were mainly acquired through the Internet. The vast majority of respondents believed that more educa- tion programs are needed in secondary schools.

Conclusions:

Secondary school students’ knowl- edge and behaviors toward infectious disease prevention need to be improved. Infectious disease prevention programs on campuses should be increased in quantity, enriched in scope, refined in form, and improved in coherence and continuity.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 4, July 2021, pp. 353-364(12)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.4.7

2021-08-26T16:32:16-06:00August 26th, 2021|COVID19, School Health|

High School Students Voice Regarding School-based Physical Activity: Perceived Barriers and Facilitating Factors

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Marie-Maude Dubuc, PhD
Seira Fortin-Suzuki, MSc
Sylvie Beaudoin, PhD
Félix Berrigan, PhD
Sylvain Turcotte, PhD

Objective:

To contribute to the development of tailored school-based physical activity interventions, in this study, we aimed to identify the perceived facilitating factors and barriers of high school students toward their physical activity in the school environment.

Methods:

A total of 139 students from 4 different high schools completed an online questionnaire comprising open-ended questions on their perceived facilitating factors and barriers toward their physical activity at school. Thereafter, 100 of these students participated in one of the 16 focus groups designed to deepen students’ responses regarding their perceived facilitating factors and barriers. Qualitative content analysis was performed to classify data according to the Social-Ecological Model.

Results:

Through questionnaires, students mostly identified intrapersonal elements as facilitating factors and barriers to their practice of physical activity, as opposed to institutional factors during the focus groups. Girls strongly valued the characteristics of the interventions and of the involved school stakeholders.

Conclusions:

Our results allow us to qualify the current understanding of high school students’ perceived facilitating factors and barriers toward school-based physical activity and strengthen the relevance of surveying students prior to the development and implementation of physical activity interventions.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 4, July 2021, pp. 331-341(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.4.5

2021-08-26T16:24:54-06:00August 26th, 2021|Adolescents, Physical Activity, School Health|

Drug Story Theater: A Mixed-Methods Study of a Peer-to-Peer Approach to Substance Abuse Education

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
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Authors:

Joseph Shrand, MD Twitter
Madeline DiGiovanni, BS
Dana Lee, BS
Anita Kishore, MD
Andrés Martin, MD, MPH

Objective:

Drug Story Theater (DST) is a peer-to-peer intervention that engages teenagers in the early stages of their recovery to develop shows about the seduction of, addiction to, and recovery from drugs and alcohol.

Methods:

We analyzed anonymous surveys completed by students before and after attending a DST performance, and transcripts of focus group interviews conducted with (1) program developers, (2) stakeholders, (3) performers, and (4) audience members.

Results:

Students (N = 871) from 5 schools attended one of 2 DST performances. Participants demonstrated increased knowledge on 5 fact-based questions (mean improvement range, 19%- 35%; p < .001 for all), and favorable changes on 10 items addressing perceptions regarding substance use risk (paired t test range, 3.9-9.4; p < .001 for all). Through iterative thematic analysis we developed an alliterative “7P” model spanning 2 domains: (1) Participants (Performers and Peers); and (2) Program (Partnerships, Practicalities, and Prevention).

Conclusions:

Exposure to a DST performance improved knowledge and risk perceptions about addiction among middle and high school students. It remains to be seen if those changes can have an effect on the prevention of substance use and dependence among vulnerable youth, and whether the active components of DST can be replicated in other school environments.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 4, July 2021, pp. 281-293(13)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.4.1

2021-08-26T16:09:29-06:00August 26th, 2021|Adolescents, School Health, Substance Use|

Can Eating Food Offered by Schools Have a Positive Influence on Nutritional Status of Children? An Example from Brazil

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Authors:

Daniel H. Bandoni, PhD Twitter
Daniela S. Canella, PhD Twitter

Objective:

Considering that the school environment can impact food consumption and children’s weight, our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the origin of foods consumed at school and children’s nutritional status.

Methods:

We used data from the nationally representative Brazilian Household Budget Survey of children under 10 years old. The relationship between consumption of foods at school and its origin (offered by the school; taken from home; bought at the canteens) and nutritional status were evaluated using linear (BMI-for-age) and logistic (excess weight and obesity) regression models stratified by type of school (private or public).

Results:

A total of 95.5% of children referred consumption of food at school, independent of its origin, and 28.0% had excess weight and 10.2% had obesity. In private schools, 70.7% of children ate food taken from home, whereas in public schools, 90.6% of children ate food offered by the school through a school food service program. According to adjusted analyses related to public schools, consuming food offered by the school decreased BMI-for-age and the odds of having obesity. No differences were verified among children from private schools.

Conclusions:

Eating food offered by public schools seems to be better for Brazilian children’s nutritional status.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 202-211(10)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.2

2021-06-30T23:16:36-06:00June 30th, 2021|Nutrition, School Health|

School Personnel’s Responses to School-based Vaping Prevention Program: A Qualitative Study

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Hongying Dai, PhD
Athena Ramos, PhD
Niran Tamrakar, MA
Marshall Cheney, PhD
Kaeli Samson, MA, MPH
Brandon Grimm, PhD

Objective:

In this qualitative study, we sought to assess 3 topics of interest: (1) current status of vaping and school-based prevention; (2) school personnel’s perceptions of vaping; and (3) challenges in implementing school-based vaping prevention programs.

Methods:

We conducted 5 focus groups using a semi-structured interview guide during October through December 2019. School personnel (eg, principals, teachers [N = 32]) from 30 middle and high schools were recruited across diverse regions in Nebraska.

Results:

Eight themes arose from the thematic analysis in 3 topic areas. School personnel attributed student vaping to easy access, low perception of harm, addiction, and proliferation of stealthy products for concealed use. Whereas schools showed strong support for addressing youth vaping on school grounds, few schools had adopted a comprehensive e-cigarette prevention and cessation program. The top challenges to current school-based vaping prevention programs include lack of time, knowledge, and coordinated efforts. Participants also recognized the significance of parental engagement in the prevention effort.

Conclusions:

There is a considerable variation in school policies and actions to address youth vaping. An evidence-based youth vaping program that involves schools, parents, students, and communities needs to be developed and disseminated in school settings.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 2, March 2021, pp. 130-147(18)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.2.4

2021-04-29T21:58:28-06:00April 26th, 2021|School Health, Tobacco|

A Pilot Study of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program in Elementary Schools: Be a Champion!

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
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Authors:

Justin B. Moore, PhD, MS, FACSM Twitter
R. Glenn Weaver, PhD, MEd
Beverly J. Levine, PhD
Camelia R. Singletary, MPH
Russell L. Carson, PhD
Michael W. Beets, PhD, MPH, MEd
Darla M. Castelli, PhD
Aaron Beighle, PhD
Russell R. Pate, PhD

Objective:

In the present study, we sought to determine if a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) delivered using the Be a Champion! (BAC) framework was effective in increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and decreasing sedentary time in elementary school youth.

Methods:

We implemented a CSPAP in 3 elementary schools to determine its effectiveness to youth behaviors compared to 2 control schools. Youth physical activity was assessed via accelerometry in spring 2015 and spring 2016 during school hours on school days. Implementation of the BAC components and youth behavior was assessed through direct observation from fall 2015 through winter 2016.

Results:

In a multilevel, mixed model examining the effects of intervention, we found no statistically significant effect of the intervention on overall MVPA. However, a significant increase in MVPA was observed among girls (but not boys) in the intervention schools relative to controls. No differences in sedentary behaviors were observed by group.

Conclusions:

CSPAP implementation may be effective in reducing sedentary time and increasing MVPA in girls, but not boys. Research is necessary to increase implementation dose and fidelity to best practices in physical activity promotion.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 2, March 2021, pp. 110-118(9)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.2.2

2021-04-29T22:00:01-06:00April 26th, 2021|Physical Activity, School Health|

An Evidence Base for School Health Policy during the COVID-19 Pandemic

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Saif Badran, MD, MRCS(Ed)*
Omran A.H. Musa, MA* Twitter
Somaya Al-maadeed, PhD, SMIEE
Egon Toft, MD, PhD
Suhail A. Doi, MBBS, PhD

* These authors contributed equally.

Objective:

Children represent a small fraction of confirmed COVID-19 cases, with a low case fatality rate (CFR). In this paper, we lay out an evidence-based policy for reopening schools.

Methods:

We gathered age-specific COVID-19 case counts and identified mortality data for 14 countries. Dose-response meta-analysis was used to examine the relationship of the incremental case fatality rate (CFR) to age. In addition, an evidence-to-decision framework (EtD) was used to correlate the dose-response data with other epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in childhood.

Results:

In the dose-response analysis, we found that there was an almost negligible fatality below age 18. CFR rose little between ages 5 to 50 years. The confidence intervals were narrow, suggesting relative homogeneity across countries. Further data suggested decreased child-hood transmission from respiratory droplets and a low viral load among children.

Conclusions:

Opening up schools and kindergartens is unlikely to impact COVID-19 case or mortality rates in both the child and adult populations. We outline a robust plan for schools that recommends that general principles not be micromanaged, with authority left to schools and monitored by public health authorities.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 1, January 2021, pp. 40-47(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.1.4

2021-04-29T22:02:20-06:00February 22nd, 2021|COVID19, Health Policy, School Health|

North American Jewish Day Schools’ Online Promotion of Physical Education

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

David Kahan, PhD
Thomas L. McKenzie, PhD
Roman Fedoriouk

Objective:

Parents and other stakeholders regularly view school websites for important information including curricula. Over 300,000 students are enrolled in North American Jewish day schools, but little is known about schools’ online promotion of physical education (PE). We conducted a content analysis of the mention of various PE characteristics and their association with school characteristics.

Methods:

We systematically tallied mention of 7 PE characteristics and 4 school characteristics on the websites of 516 Jewish day schools located in 237 North American cities. Descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations were used to analyze proportions for each characteristic and associations among them.

Results:

PE and curriculum were the only characteristics mentioned on over 50% of the websites. The mention of 4 PE characteristics (health messaging, facilities, PE, curriculum) was strongly associated with the religious affiliation of schools. Specifically, websites of liberal schools and traditional schools were more and less likely, respectively, to mention the characteristics.

Conclusions:

The websites of Jewish day schools insufficiently promoted PE characteristics with large differences based on religious affiliation. Surveying school officials responsible for website content about their beliefs on PE generally and the appropriateness of websites for promoting it may help inform strategies for boosting its online presence.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 1, January 2021, pp. 28-39(12)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.1.3

2021-04-29T22:03:27-06:00February 22nd, 2021|Physical Activity, School Health|

The Gap between Perception and Reality: Obstacles to Public School Use of Produce from Small Local Farms in the Southeastern United States

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Kathryn A. Boys, PhD
Angela M. Fraser, PhD

Objective:

Connecting farms to school foodservice operations is complex. Our purposes in this study were to: (1) identify and assess self-reported benefits and challenges to procurement and use of produce purchased directly from small farms in school foodservice operations, and (2) determine if opinions about procurement from small farms significantly differs between those with and without experience purchasing these products.

Methods:

An online survey was conducted with child nutrition directors from 3 southeastern states in the United States. Statistical tests assessed differences in opinions between those with and without experience purchasing with these products.

Results:

Directors without experience understood the benefits but significantly overestimated the difficulty in obtaining and using these products. Experience shaped director perceptions regarding perceived procurement challenges related to contract terms, ordering challenges, food safety practices, and ability of small farms to supply foodservice needs.

Conclusions:

Challenges exist in procuring produce from small farms (eg, lack of coordinated ordering, delivery, and communications processes, insufficient availability of products, and limited value-added processing). Sourcing products directly from these farms is not as onerous as perceived to be. Bridging the identified information gaps could increase participation in farm-to-school programs.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 1, January 2021, pp. 13-27(15)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.1.2

2021-04-29T22:04:35-06:00February 22nd, 2021|Nutrition, School Health|

Assessing Fish to School Programs at 2 School Districts in Oregon

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Addison Virta, MPH, RD
David C. Love, MSPH, PhD

Objective:

Farm to school (FTS) programs provide many established benefits to students and the community; however, fish to school programs are a less studied subset of FTS. The objective was to identify how fish to school programs are implemented, their impacts, and the enabling factors to support these programs.

Methods:

We conducted formative research and interviewed stakeholders from 2 school districts in Oregon in 2019.

Results:

Interviewees reported benefits of connecting students and the larger school community with local food and creating excitement from new lunch offerings. Factors that facilitated fish to school programs included strong program leaders and partnerships, FTS grant funding, and the creative use of resources. Challenges in maintaining the program included sustainable program funding, seafood distribution networks, recipe development, and higher cost per serving of seafood compared to other proteins.

Conclusions:

Resources exist for school professionals interested in starting or sustaining fish to school programs. These programs are difficult to launch and sustain, and thus, require many forms of support (institutional, financial, industry, culinary, etc) and benefit from innovations like fish to school aggregators and product development such as pre-prepared fish options.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 557-569(13)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.5

2021-04-29T22:09:00-06:00December 30th, 2020|Nutrition, Open Access, School Health|
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