An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.


Deana A. Hildebrand, PhD, RD
Jeremy Humphrey, MS
Lindsi Lemons, MPH


The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an ongoing health promotion program to sustain student outcomes over an extended period, and to determine if student outcomes are affected by the schools’ duration of program participation.


The repeat- measures study used secondary data from Healthy Schools Oklahoma for School Years 2016-2019. FITNESSGRAM® assessed changes in student fitness levels (N = 12,219); an electronic health survey assessed changes in knowledge and behaviors (N = 6840). McNemar tests examined change in the proportion of students reaching the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) for 6 FITNESSGRAM® tests, and the proportion of students with accurate knowledge or meeting dietary and physical activity recommendations. Poisson regression tested for change in student outcomes based on duration of program participation.


The proportion of students reaching HFZ increased for 5 of 6 fitness tests (p ≤ .004) and with accurate nutrition and physical education knowledge (p ≤ .009). We found statistically significant main effects for outcomes (p ≤ .016) and duration (p ≤ .030); there was no effect for the interaction.


Students achieved similar gains in outcomes regardless of the schools’ duration of program participation.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 2, March 2022, pp. 765-775(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.