Non-profit Coordinated School Health Program Achieves Student Outcomes in Both Beginning and Experienced Schools

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Deana A. Hildebrand, PhD, RD
Jeremy Humphrey, MS
Lindsi Lemons, MPH

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an ongoing health promotion program to sustain student outcomes over an extended period, and to determine if student outcomes are affected by the schools’ duration of program participation.

Methods:

The repeat- measures study used secondary data from Healthy Schools Oklahoma for School Years 2016-2019. FITNESSGRAM® assessed changes in student fitness levels (N = 12,219); an electronic health survey assessed changes in knowledge and behaviors (N = 6840). McNemar tests examined change in the proportion of students reaching the healthy fitness zone (HFZ) for 6 FITNESSGRAM® tests, and the proportion of students with accurate knowledge or meeting dietary and physical activity recommendations. Poisson regression tested for change in student outcomes based on duration of program participation.

Results:

The proportion of students reaching HFZ increased for 5 of 6 fitness tests (p ≤ .004) and with accurate nutrition and physical education knowledge (p ≤ .009). We found statistically significant main effects for outcomes (p ≤ .016) and duration (p ≤ .030); there was no effect for the interaction.

Conclusions:

Students achieved similar gains in outcomes regardless of the schools’ duration of program participation.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 2, March 2022, pp. 765-775(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.2.4

2022-03-30T22:10:15-06:00March 30th, 2022|Nutrition, Physical Activity, School Health|

That Pop-Up Restaurant: Innovation in a Summer Feeding Program

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Keyondra L. Brooks, PhD
Will Rapp, MS
Jennifer Ogleby
Matt Shepherd, PhD

Objective:

That Pop-Up Restaurant Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) was a federally reimbursed program that first served healthy meals to families in a rural Kansas community during the summer of 2017. The program aimed to empower communities to address child hunger by reducing stigma concerning food assistance and providing high-quality, nutritious meals to families. This pilot was developed to increase low utilization rates of summer feeding programs.

Methods:

An ecological approach was implemented to engage students and families. Program innovations included an open menu ordering format with paid adult meals and proper food storage while maintaining USDA’s nutritional requirements. Additionally, the menu options exceeded fruit and vegetable requirements.

Results:

On average, 9.6% of youth who participated in the free and reduced-price lunch programs participated daily in summer nutrition during the 2016-2017 school year (FRAC, 2019). Comparatively, That Pop-Up Restaurant’s pilot had over 25% of eligible youth participate in the program one or more times.

Conclusions:

That Pop-Up Restaurant summer food service program showed promising results for the target population and program developers aim to replicate the program in various communities.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 6, November 2021, pp. 620-627(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.6.12

2021-12-30T21:43:43-07:00December 30th, 2021|Nutrition, Youth|

A Content Analysis of Implementation Strategies Chosen by Virginia School Nutrition Directors

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Kathleen J. Porter, PhD, RD
Kelly Shomo, MPH
Sandra Curwood, PhD, RDN
Sarah A. Misyak, PhD, MPH

Objective:

School-based interventions are common approaches to address childhood obesity; however, there is little understanding of strategies that can foster their implementation into schools. In this study, we aimed to identify goals and the specific strategies selected by school nutrition directors (SNDs) in Virginia to execute school-based interventions.

Methods:

Between 2018 and 2019, SNDs in Virginia participated in Team Nutrition workshops through which they created action plans. We carried out a content analysis of 132 action plans collected from 100 school divisions. We developed codes deductively and inductively. The codes captured plan completion, goals, and strategies. Each plan was independently coded by 2 coders.

Results:

Action plans included 1.2 goals (SD = 0.54) and 3.9 strategies per goal (SD = 2.1). Goals were most commonly related to improving menus or increasing participation in the school meal programs. The strategies varied based on the goals. However, obtaining buy-in from school personnel and students was the most commonly included goal (64.4%) across plans. The level of action plan completion decreased with each subsequent section of the worksheet.

Conclusions:

Emerging patterns identified in this study suggest SNDs’ strategy selection is based on goals and that trainings should be tailored to promote the development of skills required to execute optimal strategies.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 6, November 2021, pp. 585-595(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.6.9

2021-12-30T21:42:26-07:00December 30th, 2021|Implementation, Nutrition|

Development and Psychometric Assessment of Questionnaires for Evaluation of Social Support for Healthy Breakfast and Snack Consumption

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Fatemeh Bastami, PhD
Firoozeh Mostafavi, PhD
Arash Ardalan, MD, MPH
Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, PhD

Objective:

Social support is one of the predictors of nutrition behaviors. Therefore, measuring and improving the level of support is necessary to improve students’ nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to design instruments and evaluate their psychometric properties for the evaluation of social support for breakfast and snack consumption.

Methods:

This methodological study was carried out from 2016 to 2018. The qualitative phase was performed in 3 Iranian cities: Isfahan, Khorramabad and Tehran. The quantitative phase was completed in Isfahan only. Initially, 2 questionnaires were developed using the results of the qualitative research. Subsequently, we assessed the face, content, and construct validity of both instruments.

Results:

The maternal support questionnaire consisted of 3 dimensions, including mother-sponsored support, family life pattern, and school-based collaboration, which explained 55.35% of the instrument’s variance. The school support questionnaire comprised 2 dimensions including informational support and instrumental support, which explained 54.52% of the variance in the results.

Conclusions:

These instruments can be used to measure and improve social support by designing, implementing, and evaluating community-based campaigns and interventions to improve breakfast consumption and snacking behaviors among children and youth at home and in school.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 6, November 2021, pp. 558-569(12)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.6.6

2021-12-30T21:38:17-07:00December 30th, 2021|Nutrition, Psychometric Assessment, Social Support|

Supporting a Participatory Process for Evidence on Healthy Eating to Promote Healthy Diet among Children: An Illustration from Nigeria

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Authors:

Yetunde O. John-Akinola, MPH, PhD
Odunayo O. Akano, MPH
Oluwasegun Akinwale, MPH

Objective:

In this study, we assessed children’s perception of healthy eating and investigated the contents of lunch boxes packed from home.

Methods:

Overall, 728 pupils in first to sixth class across 25 primary schools in Ibadan, South West Nigeria wrote their perceptions of healthy eating on small colored papers. Contents of lunch boxes were observed during the school lunch period. Descriptive and qualitative analysis was carried out and data were represented in word clouds and figures.

Results:

Most pupils (97.9%) listed food items that they referred to as healthy food, represented in a word cloud. Further categorization showed that few pupils identified fruits (5.3%) and vegetables (2.4%) as healthy food. Pupils in private schools were 1.9 times more likely to have pastries in their lunch boxes than public schools (OR = 1.914, 95% CI: 1.121-3.268)

Conclusions:

Multiple educational interventions should be targeted at the pupil-, parent-, and school-level to promote healthy eating behaviors. The use of communication materials with pictorial depiction of examples of healthy food could serve as a reinforcing factor to help maintain positive behavioral change.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 269-276(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.8

2021-06-30T21:28:00-06:00June 30th, 2021|Community Health, Nutrition|

Engaging School and Family in Navajo Gardening for Health: Development of the Yéego Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating among Navajo Children

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Authors:

India J. Ornelas, PhD, MPH Twitter
Kassia Rudd, MEd
Sonia Bishop, BS
Desiree Deschenie, BS
Emily Brown, MPH
Kevin Lombard, PhD
Shirley A. A. Beresford, PhD

Objective:

Navajo children are at increased risk for obesity, in part due to limited access to healthy foods. School garden interventions increase access to fresh fruit and vegetables and consumption of healthy foods. Our study describes the development and pilot testing of a school garden intervention for Navajo elementary school children.

Methods:

We reviewed existing school garden interventions and conducted formative research with students, caregivers, and school staff to inform the intervention. The intervention consisted of a garden built at the school and a yearlong curriculum on gardening and healthy eating. We pilot-tested the intervention in an elementary school on the Navajo Nation.

Results:

Formative research revealed the importance of incorporating Diné culture, including traditional growing practices and the preparation of traditional foods into the curriculum. School staff also stressed the value of tying the curriculum to state and Diné educational standards. Students enjoyed opportunities for hands-on activities and snack preparation.

Conclusions:

Schools have a meaningful role to play in addressing childhood obesity disparities among Navajo children. School-based interventions that draw on cultural strengths and include healthy traditional practices can be a promising strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 212-222(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.3

2021-06-30T21:23:34-06:00June 30th, 2021|Community Health, Nutrition|

Can Eating Food Offered by Schools Have a Positive Influence on Nutritional Status of Children? An Example from Brazil

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Authors:

Daniel H. Bandoni, PhD Twitter
Daniela S. Canella, PhD Twitter

Objective:

Considering that the school environment can impact food consumption and children’s weight, our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the origin of foods consumed at school and children’s nutritional status.

Methods:

We used data from the nationally representative Brazilian Household Budget Survey of children under 10 years old. The relationship between consumption of foods at school and its origin (offered by the school; taken from home; bought at the canteens) and nutritional status were evaluated using linear (BMI-for-age) and logistic (excess weight and obesity) regression models stratified by type of school (private or public).

Results:

A total of 95.5% of children referred consumption of food at school, independent of its origin, and 28.0% had excess weight and 10.2% had obesity. In private schools, 70.7% of children ate food taken from home, whereas in public schools, 90.6% of children ate food offered by the school through a school food service program. According to adjusted analyses related to public schools, consuming food offered by the school decreased BMI-for-age and the odds of having obesity. No differences were verified among children from private schools.

Conclusions:

Eating food offered by public schools seems to be better for Brazilian children’s nutritional status.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 202-211(10)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.2

2021-06-30T23:16:36-06:00June 30th, 2021|Nutrition, School Health|

The Gap between Perception and Reality: Obstacles to Public School Use of Produce from Small Local Farms in the Southeastern United States

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Kathryn A. Boys, PhD
Angela M. Fraser, PhD

Objective:

Connecting farms to school foodservice operations is complex. Our purposes in this study were to: (1) identify and assess self-reported benefits and challenges to procurement and use of produce purchased directly from small farms in school foodservice operations, and (2) determine if opinions about procurement from small farms significantly differs between those with and without experience purchasing these products.

Methods:

An online survey was conducted with child nutrition directors from 3 southeastern states in the United States. Statistical tests assessed differences in opinions between those with and without experience purchasing with these products.

Results:

Directors without experience understood the benefits but significantly overestimated the difficulty in obtaining and using these products. Experience shaped director perceptions regarding perceived procurement challenges related to contract terms, ordering challenges, food safety practices, and ability of small farms to supply foodservice needs.

Conclusions:

Challenges exist in procuring produce from small farms (eg, lack of coordinated ordering, delivery, and communications processes, insufficient availability of products, and limited value-added processing). Sourcing products directly from these farms is not as onerous as perceived to be. Bridging the identified information gaps could increase participation in farm-to-school programs.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 1, January 2021, pp. 13-27(15)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.1.2

2021-04-29T22:04:35-06:00February 22nd, 2021|Nutrition, School Health|

Why it is Important for School-age Children to Have Breakfast – A Commentary

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Irene Rutigliano, MD
Gianpaolo De Filippo, MD, PhD
Angelo Campanozzi, MD

Objective:

In this commentary we emphasize the importance of breakfast for children, both from the point of view of proper nutritional education and as a strategy for the prevention of obesity.

Methods:

We reviewed the international literature, drawing particularly on information regarding the possible negative effects of skipping breakfast.

Results:

Obese children often do not eat breakfast and may face metabolic problems such as insulin resistance and hypercholesterolemia. The child who does not eat breakfast often becomes an adult who does not eat breakfast. The role of parents is fundamental in the acquisition of correct eating habits.

Conclusions:

The awareness that habits during childhood become elements of everyday life in adulthood, makes us understand the importance of the long-term consequences of skipping breakfast during childhood and adolescence.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 604-607(4)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.9

2021-04-29T22:06:41-06:00December 30th, 2020|Nutrition, Open Access|

Sex Differences in Body Mass Index, Mediterranean Diet Adherence, and Physical Activity Level among Italian Adolescents

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Francesca Mastorci, PhD
Cristina Doveri
Gabriele Trivellini
Anselmo Casu, BS
Luca Bastiani, BS
Alessandro Pingitore, MD, PhD,
Cristina Vassalle, PhD

Objective:

Unhealthy lifestyle habits during adolescence are linked to a higher risk of chronic degenerative disease during adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the lifestyle habits among Italian adolescents, considering the potential influence of sex.

Methods:

Data were collected from 1707 eligible students. Demographic, dietary, and lifestyle data were collected, by using KIDMED and PAQ-C instruments.

Results:

The overall population had a medium adherence to a Mediterranean diet (58%, KIDMED score: 2.11 ± 0.64). There was no statistically significant difference in adherence by sex. We found boys to be more physically active than girls (p < .001). Considering ponderal index status, boys had turned out to be more overweight and obese respectively (13% and 4% respect to 10% and 2% in female population, p < .05, respectively), due to the presence of only one risk factor (medium or low both in diet and in physical activity score).

Conclusions:

Our results showed that our population stands at average levels both for its adherence to the Mediterranean diet and for physical activity, with males having a higher percentage of overweight and obesity. Importantly, in contrast to girls, boys have a higher risk of obesity, also in the presence of a single risk factor.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 596-603(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.8

2021-04-29T22:08:00-06:00December 30th, 2020|Adolescents, Nutrition, Open Access, Physical Activity|
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