Social support is one of the predictors of nutrition behaviors. Therefore, measuring and improving the level of support is necessary to improve students’ nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to design instruments and evaluate their psychometric properties for the evaluation of social support for breakfast and snack consumption.
This methodological study was carried out from 2016 to 2018. The qualitative phase was performed in 3 Iranian cities: Isfahan, Khorramabad and Tehran. The quantitative phase was completed in Isfahan only. Initially, 2 questionnaires were developed using the results of the qualitative research. Subsequently, we assessed the face, content, and construct validity of both instruments.
The maternal support questionnaire consisted of 3 dimensions, including mother-sponsored support, family life pattern, and school-based collaboration, which explained 55.35% of the instrument’s variance. The school support questionnaire comprised 2 dimensions including informational support and instrumental support, which explained 54.52% of the variance in the results.
These instruments can be used to measure and improve social support by designing, implementing, and evaluating community-based campaigns and interventions to improve breakfast consumption and snacking behaviors among children and youth at home and in school.