Karen Sadler, MCP
Kate Turcotte, MSc
Shelina Babul, PhD
Concussion is a public health concern across all ages, yet there is little research on providing concussion education and training within the educational context. The Concussion Awareness Training Tool for School Professionals (CATT SP) was developed to provide the necessary concussion education and resources for school professionals to support a student with concussion while integrating back to school.
The CATT SP module underwent a 2016 pre/post-intervention evaluation to determine if knowledge and attitudes significantly improved among educators and administrators following completion of the CATT SP, as well as a 2018-19 pilot study within a school district in British Columbia with an accompanying Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement assessment.
A statistically significant positive change in knowledge (p = .027) was found among those who indicated that they had accessed CATT SP. Results of the pilot study and QA/QI assessment found support of the use of CATT within the school district.
Evidence-based concussion training and resources are key components for school professionals who are collaboratively supporting a student’s individualized return to school and learning following a concussion, and when developing and implementing a concussion policy within districts and school.
An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.
Saif Badran, MD, MRCS(Ed)*
Omran A.H. Musa, MA*
Somaya Al-maadeed, PhD, SMIEE
Egon Toft, MD, PhD
Suhail A. Doi, MBBS, PhD
* These authors contributed equally.
Children represent a small fraction of confirmed COVID-19 cases, with a low case fatality rate (CFR). In this paper, we lay out an evidence-based policy for reopening schools.
We gathered age-specific COVID-19 case counts and identified mortality data for 14 countries. Dose-response meta-analysis was used to examine the relationship of the incremental case fatality rate (CFR) to age. In addition, an evidence-to-decision framework (EtD) was used to correlate the dose-response data with other epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in childhood.
In the dose-response analysis, we found that there was an almost negligible fatality below age 18. CFR rose little between ages 5 to 50 years. The confidence intervals were narrow, suggesting relative homogeneity across countries. Further data suggested decreased child-hood transmission from respiratory droplets and a low viral load among children.
Opening up schools and kindergartens is unlikely to impact COVID-19 case or mortality rates in both the child and adult populations. We outline a robust plan for schools that recommends that general principles not be micromanaged, with authority left to schools and monitored by public health authorities.