Open Access Articles

Biomedical Risk Factors for COVID-19 among People Living with HIV during the First Wave of the Pandemic

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.

Authors:

Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, MBA, MEd, FWACS
Roberto Ariel Abeldaño Zuñiga, MPH, PhD
Nourhan Moustafa Aly, MSc
Muhammad Abrar Yousaf, MSc
Passent Ellakany, PhD
Ifeoma Idigbe, MSc
Folake Barakat Lawal, PhD, FWACS, FMCDS
Zumama Khalid, MSc
Joanne Lusher, PhD
Jorma Virtanen, DDS, PhD, MScPH
Maha El Tantawi, PhD

Objective:

We assessed the associations between testing positive for COVID-19 and HIV viral load, and access to and adherence to antiretroviral therapy during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods:

We conducted a secondary analysis of data, where we extracted complete information for 904 participants self-identifying as HIV positive. The dataset encompassed the dependent variable (testing positive for COVID-19), independent variables (HIV viral load, access to a 90-day supply of antiretroviral drugs, adherence to antiretroviral therapy), and confounding variables (age, sex assigned at birth, living with HIV co-morbidities, and self-reported depression).

Results:

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (AOR: 0.364; 95% CI: 0.231-0.574; p < .001) was significantly association with decreased odds of testing positive for COVID-19. We found no statistically significant associations between HIV viral load or access to a 90-day supply of antiretroviral drugs and testing positive for COVID-19.

Conclusions:

The results underscore the necessity for ongoing HIV treatment adherence counseling for individuals with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research is warranted to elucidate the paradox wherein adherence to antiretroviral therapy was associated with testing positive for COVID-19, but HIV viral load was not.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 10, Number 6, December 2023
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
Article Link: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.10.6.3

2024-03-27T15:52:33-06:00January 24th, 2024|COVID19, HIV|

Socioeconomic Factors, Movement Behavior Context, and Self-reported Physical and Mental Health in Adults Living in New York City

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.

Authors:

Ryan D. Burns, PhD
Christopher D. Pfledderer, PhD
You Fu, PhD

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of socioeconomic factors, movement behavior context, and self-reported physical and mental health in adults living in New York City.

Methods:

Participants were adults from the Physical Activity and Transit Survey (N = 3811; 53.2% female). The dependent variables were items asking about the number of days the participant experienced poor physical and mental health. Independent variables were socioeconomic factors and items asking about the frequency of physical activity (PA) within certain contexts and rest/sleep behaviors. Weighted multivariable negative binomial regression models examined the associations.

Results:

More days of bicycling transit (IRR = 0.79, p = .001) and higher levels of household income (IRR range = 0.44-0.66, p < .025) were associated with lower rates of poor physical health. More days of poor rest/sleep (IRR = 1.05, p < .001) and labor PA (IRR = 1.10, p < .001) were associated with higher rates of poor mental health, and higher household income (IRR range = 0.58-0.65, p < .01) were associated with a lower rate of poor mental health.

Conclusions:

The strength and direction of associations with self-reported health varied according to PA context. Poor rest/sleep and low household income were strongly associated with both poor physical and mental health.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 10, Number 5, October 2023, pp. 9-24(16)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
Article Link: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.10.5.2

2024-01-12T09:56:45-07:00January 12th, 2024|Physical Activity|

Trauma Informed Care Can Enhance Whole Person Care to Meet the Quadruple Aim

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.

Authors:

Rebecca M. Perley, DBH, LNHA
Barbara L. Ganzel, PhD, LMSW

Objective:

Whole person care typically includes a biopsychosocial, interdisciplinary treatment approach with the intent of improved health outcomes and savings in total dollars spent on healthcare providers and services. Its multidimensional approach to a patient’s physical and mental health makes it the model of choice for achieving the quadruple aim of healthcare reform. However, we argue that whole person care is incomplete in its current form due to its lack of attention to the public health impact of stress and psychological trauma.

Methods:

We used seminal articles, original research and theory, and a variety of databases such as PubMed, and Google Scholar to research our topic.

Results:

Whole person care would benefit from the integration of trauma informed care practices, so that it can better meet the quadruple aim by addressing these broader public health concerns. Trauma-informed care was selected because it understands, recognizes, and responds appropriately to trauma in patients and providers, which enhances the effectiveness of healthcare delivery and reduces the impact of social inequity.

Conclusions:

Integrating trauma informed care into whole person care can help achieve the quadruple aim, as well as the newly proposed fifth aim of advancing health equity, because social inequity increases stress and exposure to psychological trauma.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 10, Number 5, October 2023, pp. 25-33(9)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
Article Link: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.10.5.3

2024-01-12T10:18:55-07:00December 21st, 2023|Health Equity, Healthcare Reform, Whole Person Care|

Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening among Sub-Saharan African Immigrant Women in the United States: A Qualitative Report

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.

Authors:

Ann O. Amuta-Jimenez, PhD
Itunu O. Sokale, MD, DrPH
Lorraine R. Reitzel, PhD

Objective:

Cervical cancer screening can prevent women across all age groups from developing cervical cancer (CC). However, Sub-Saharan African immigrant women (SAIW) sparsely engage in routine CC screening. Thus, developing prevention strategies to improve SAIW’s adherence to recommended CC screening guidelines is critical. To ensure that such strategies are successful, they must meet the needs of the target population. By conducting qualitative interviews with SAIW (N = 15), we aimed to get a deeper understanding of barriers to CC screening receipt.

Methods:

We asked SAIW about barriers to CC screening and possible ideas to facilitate their future screening behavior.

Results:

Our findings revealed that SAIW are especially affected by several major barriers: lack of awareness of CC guidelines, fear/fatalism, lack of resources (eg, a lack of time due to job and family commitment), other resource-related barriers (eg, unreliable mode of transport, and no health insurance), modesty, and overt bias. Participants indicated a preference for female healthcare providers for CC screening and suggested spousal involvement in CC intervention development to foster support.

Conclusions:

The identification of multi-level barriers indicates that multiple strategies are needed to improve the uptake of CC screening among SAIW.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 10, Number 5, October 2023, pp. 1-8(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
Article Link: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.10.5.1

2024-01-12T10:19:49-07:00December 10th, 2023|Cancer, Immigration Health, Women's Health|

Improving the Participation Rates of Freelance Laborers in Voluntary Social Insurance Programs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

A Fast Track Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.

Authors:

Luong Van Bui, PhD
Dung Dac Nguyen, MBA
Linh Hong Dinh, PhD

Objective:

In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategies for increasing participation rates of freelance laborers in voluntary social insurance (VSI) programs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

Methods:

We surveyed a sample of 400 persons and analyzed the data using SPSS 20 software. Both exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were employed to analyze the level and nature of the relationships among the variables.

Results:

The intention of laborers to participate in VSI in the rural regions of Thai Nguyen province was influenced by 5 factors – information, trust, attitude, risk perceptions, and knowledge. Nonetheless, the extent of impact varied across the distinct factors.

Conclusions:

To enhance participation rates in social insurance, it is imperative for policymakers and other relevant stakeholders to engage in information dissemination through a diverse array of channels, such as clubs, individuals, and local organizations. This strategy will serve to ensure that individuals possess a heightened comprehension of the tangible advantages associated with participation in social insurance programs.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
Article Link: https://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/psp/hbpr/2023/00000010/00000004/art00003

2023-10-20T16:44:16-06:00August 30th, 2023|Insurance, Vietnam|

Provider Perceptions of Attitudes toward People who Inject Drugs and Treatment Services among Community Members, Service Providers, and Law Enforcement Officials

A Fast Track Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.

Authors:

Joshua Wilke, MD
Cahit Kaya, PhD
Wajiha Z. Akhtar, PhD
William Bull, MD
Sarah Krechel, MPH
Randall Brown, MD, PhD
Ryan P. Westergaard, MD, PhD, MPH
David W. Seal, PhD

Objective:

People who inject drugs (PWIDs) often face stigma, leading to barriers in accessing healthcare and may contribute to negative health outcomes. The objective of this study was to understand and describe the manifestations of stigma toward PWIDs and their impact on the utilization of essential prevention services.

Methods:

We interviewed 44 persons knowledgeable about PWIDs’ healthcare needs. Interviews explored perceptions of the community, healthcare service providers, law enforcement attitudes toward PWIDs, and treatment services.

Results:

Respondents believed that the community generally has stigmatizing attitudes towards PWIDs; treatment program personnel and healthcare providers have less stigmatized attitudes but could benefit from more education and training on drug use and addiction.

Conclusions:

Education and training on stigma and its negative impact on the lives of PWIDs for K-12 students and for healthcare professionals (eg, treatment options, harm reduction strategies) might mitigate stigma toward PWIDs and improve access to services and outcomes.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
Article Link: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.10.4.2

2023-10-20T16:36:08-06:00August 28th, 2023|Health Education, Rural Health, Substance Use|

State SUNucate Laws, the Popularity of Google Searches for Terms Related to Sun Protection, and Youth Sunscreen Use

A Fast Track Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.

Authors:

Christopher S. Carpenter, PhD
Michelle Marcus, PhD
Mary-Margaret Chren, MD
Brandyn F. Churchill, PhD

Objective:

Our objective was to determine whether state SUNucate laws – which have been adopted by 27 states and require schools to permit youths to carry and apply sunscreen on school grounds – were associated with changes in Google Search behavior for words and phrases related to sun protection as well as self-reported sunscreen use by youths.

Methods:

This was an observational study examining: (1) Google Trends search popularity for terms such as ‘sunscreen’ and ‘SPF’ by state, month, and year for 2004-2022; and (2) self-reported sunscreen use by high school youth in the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey during 2009-2019.

Results:

State SUNucate laws were associated with increased Google search popularity of terms related to sun protection. Google search popularity for “sunscreen” increased by 27.2% (95% CI 12.67% to 41.7%; p < .001). State SUNucate laws were also associated with increased sunscreen use among high school youths by 8.3% (95% CI 0.014% to 15.0%; p < .05).

Conclusions:

State SUNucate laws may be effective tools for increasing population search behavior for sun protection terms and youth sunscreen use.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
Article Link: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.10.4.1

2023-10-20T16:33:44-06:00August 24th, 2023|Adolescents, School Health, Youth|

Active Duty to Veteran: Challenges Faced by Service Men and Women Reintegrating to Civilian Life in the South Carolina Lowcountry

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.

Authors:

Alyssa B. Mayer, PhD, MPH
Taylor McCune, MOT, OTR/L
Justin T. McDaniel, PhD, MBA
Diana Gill, PhD, CHES
Robert J. McDermott, PhD, FAAHB

Objective:

One in 4 active-duty US military personnel report needing support for mental health issues. This proportion increases to 41% of all US military veterans, suggesting mental health status may worsen by the transition from active duty to civilian life. In this study, we explore the lived experiences of veterans in the South Carolina Low country as they transition from active service to civilian life, with an emphasis on identifying services and support for this population.

Methods:

We used a qualitative design employing a grounded theory approach. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 veterans in the first year of reintegration to civilian life that examined the following areas: (1) social isolation; (2) physical isolation; and (3) self-reported levels of mental distress.

Results:

Thematic saturation was reached with the following emerging themes: (1) perceived mental distress due to social and physical isolation, (2) difficulty transitioning from the military “family” to one’s actual family, (3) confusion regarding identity and place in society, and an expressed (4) need for services to support this critical period in a veteran’s life.

Conclusions:

Our interview data provide insight about the experiences of military veterans as they return to civilian life and offer evidence for the need for better integration into the social and physical fabric of the population using both existing and enhanced community-based support programs.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
Article Link: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.10.3.5

2023-08-19T15:40:16-06:00August 6th, 2023|Mental Health, Veterans|

Addressing Community Health Worker Wellness and Self-care: A Formative Evaluation

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.

Authors:

Chelsey Kirkland, PhD, MPH, CHW
Jeffrey S. Hallam, PhD, FRSPH

Objective:

Community health workers (CHWs) experience higher than average risks for chronic diseases and poor health and are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic due to being from historically marginalized populations. Despite limited literature, these factors indicate a need for CHW-specific support programming for wellness and self-care. Therefore, we conducted formative evaluation using virtual focus groups (N = 5) using descriptive and interpretive qualitative research methods to inform a program called “HANS KAI.”

Methods:

The focus groups included CHWs (N = 35) and CHW supervisors (N = 5) to explore CHW-support programming needs and understand their perceptions of HANS KAI. Two moderators followed a semi-structured focus group guide with questions and prompts focused on 5 primary domains: (1) Intervention Initiation, (2) Impact of Agency Culture, (3) HANS KAI Meeting Details, (4) HANS KAI Meeting Topics, and (5) Intervention Incentives. Audio-transcribed data were aggregated and analyzed for each domain with inductive codes involving iterative cycles of descriptive and in vivo coding. Salient themes and sub-themes were developed based on the domains.

Results:

We developed 8 salient themes within the domains.

Conclusions:

Our findings reveal that CHW HANS KAI components reflect CHWs’ needs, may benefit CHWs, and provide insights into CHW-specific programming.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
Article Link: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.10.3.2

2023-08-19T15:38:25-06:00July 26th, 2023|Community Health, Physical Activity, Program Planning|

Dynamic Topic Modeling to Mine Themes and Evolution during the Initial COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.

Authors:

Ankita Agarwal
Dixit Bharatkumar Patel
Emily Burwell
William Romine
Tanvi Banerjee

Objective:

In this paper, we identify the topics in the form of themes being discussed on Twitter about the COVID-19 vaccine during the period of initial rollout of the vaccines and their evolution every month with the scientific advancement and major events on the COVID-19 vaccine timeline.

Methods:

We collected tweets from Twitter API over a period of 3 months from December 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021 using the keyword, ‘COVID-19 vaccine’ and implemented dynamic topic modeling to identify topics in the form of themes being discussed. We then visualized the evolution of these themes every month with the news events during that time.

Results:

We found that 8 themes were discussed on Twitter during the initial rollout of COVID-19 vaccines. Within each theme, there were some unique key words found in a particular month or new key words that emerged from the previous month. These themes evolved with the trending news during that time period.

Conclusions:

Public discussions and health behavior of people about COVID-19 vaccines across different themes evolved over time. There was a dynamic and temporal shift in the perception of people regarding these vaccines coinciding with the scientific advancement and news events around the development, distribution, and administration of these vaccines.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
Article Link: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.10.3.1

2023-08-19T15:36:13-06:00July 3rd, 2023|COVID19, Social Media|
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