Time to Scale-up Research Collaborations to Address the Global Impact of COVID-19 – A Commentary

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Authors:

Annie Lu Nguyen, PhD, MPH Twitter
Brandon Brown, PhD, MPH
Maha El Tantawi, PhD
Nicaise Ndembi, PhD
Joseph Okeibunor, PhD
Abdulaziz Mohammed, MD
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, DMD

Objective:

In this commentary, we suggest that the unprecedented global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic provides a compelling reason for researchers to stretch beyond usual limits and find new ways to engage in global collaborations.

Methods:

We point to data that have emerged on the mental health and economic consequences of the pandemic to illustrate the extent to which these common issues cross national borders. There is high likelihood that these burdens will continue to persist long after the pandemic is declared “over.”

Results:

We urge researchers, particularly those from countries with higher income economies, to share resources to increase international collaborative research efforts. We present a case study of an ongoing project and offer some lessons learned for individual investigators.

Conclusions:

Global problems require global solutions. The COVID-19 pandemic is a global crisis that should prompt researchers to engage in science and research across national borders.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 277-280(4)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.9

2021-06-30T21:28:53-06:00June 30th, 2021|COVID19, Research Methods|

Supporting a Participatory Process for Evidence on Healthy Eating to Promote Healthy Diet among Children: An Illustration from Nigeria

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Authors:

Yetunde O. John-Akinola, MPH, PhD
Odunayo O. Akano, MPH
Oluwasegun Akinwale, MPH

Objective:

In this study, we assessed children’s perception of healthy eating and investigated the contents of lunch boxes packed from home.

Methods:

Overall, 728 pupils in first to sixth class across 25 primary schools in Ibadan, South West Nigeria wrote their perceptions of healthy eating on small colored papers. Contents of lunch boxes were observed during the school lunch period. Descriptive and qualitative analysis was carried out and data were represented in word clouds and figures.

Results:

Most pupils (97.9%) listed food items that they referred to as healthy food, represented in a word cloud. Further categorization showed that few pupils identified fruits (5.3%) and vegetables (2.4%) as healthy food. Pupils in private schools were 1.9 times more likely to have pastries in their lunch boxes than public schools (OR = 1.914, 95% CI: 1.121-3.268)

Conclusions:

Multiple educational interventions should be targeted at the pupil-, parent-, and school-level to promote healthy eating behaviors. The use of communication materials with pictorial depiction of examples of healthy food could serve as a reinforcing factor to help maintain positive behavioral change.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 269-276(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.8

2021-06-30T21:28:00-06:00June 30th, 2021|Community Health, Nutrition|

Collaboration, Training and Resources to Support School Policy Development and Recovery from Concussion

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Authors:

Karen Sadler, MCP
Kate Turcotte, MSc
Shelina Babul, PhD

Objective:

Concussion is a public health concern across all ages, yet there is little research on providing concussion education and training within the educational context. The Concussion Awareness Training Tool for School Professionals (CATT SP) was developed to provide the necessary concussion education and resources for school professionals to support a student with concussion while integrating back to school.

Methods:

The CATT SP module underwent a 2016 pre/post-intervention evaluation to determine if knowledge and attitudes significantly improved among educators and administrators following completion of the CATT SP, as well as a 2018-19 pilot study within a school district in British Columbia with an accompanying Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement assessment.

Results:

A statistically significant positive change in knowledge (p = .027) was found among those who indicated that they had accessed CATT SP. Results of the pilot study and QA/QI assessment found support of the use of CATT within the school district.

Conclusions:

Evidence-based concussion training and resources are key components for school professionals who are collaboratively supporting a student’s individualized return to school and learning following a concussion, and when developing and implementing a concussion policy within districts and school.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 257-268(12)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.7

2021-06-30T21:27:06-06:00June 30th, 2021|Health Policy, Program Planning|

Children’s Physical Activity and Screen Time during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Exploration of Parent Perceptions

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Authors:

Amy A. Eyler, PhD CHES
Laurel Schmidt, BS
Alan Beck, PhD, CHES
Amanda Gilbert, MPH
Maura Kepper, PhD
Stephanie Mazzucca, PhD

Objective:

In this study, we explore parent perception of children’s physical activity and screen time during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders.

Methods:

We interviewed 16 parents of children ages 5-12 years in the St. Louis, Missouri region using snowball sampling. We sampled from rural, urban, and suburban areas. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a priori and emergent codes.

Results:

The transition to virtual school and work transformed daily activities. Physical education requirements varied, generally perceived as not contributing to overall physical activity. Parents perceived the amount of physical activity as the same or increased but reported an increase in screen time. The physical environment of the home, yard, and neighborhood emerged as a theme as did the social environment for physical activity.

Conclusions:

COVID-19 stay-at-home orders created challenges for children’s physical activity. Results can be used to inform more generalizable studies and serve as a basis for creating better parent resources to support their children’s physical activity outside of ordinary school, sport, and community activity opportunities.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 236-246(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.5

2021-06-30T21:25:19-06:00June 30th, 2021|COVID19, Physical Activity|

Single and Multi-message Sexuality Education: Improving Implementation and Evaluation of Group-based Programs

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Authors:

Lisa A. Rue, PhD
Michael A. Floren, PhD
Kiley M. Floren, MPH
Galena K. Rhoades, PhD
Kayla Knopp, PhD
Elaine M. Walker, PhD
Jesse Owen, PhD

Objective:

In this study, we isolated primary messaging strategies of sexuality education curricula to improve tailored delivery of group-based interventions. Specifically, our aim was to define single-message programs (eg, messaging about avoiding sexual risk or messaging about reducing sexual risk) and multiple-message programs (eg, avoiding sexual risk and reducing sexual risk), and to investigate their comparative effectiveness.

Methods:

We used a descriptive approach with publicly available data from US Department of Health and Human Services-funded teen pregnancy prevention programs to categorize 16 different curricula as single-message or multiple-message. We coded primary messages using a curriculum mapping rubric and scoring that was evaluated by a panel of experts for content validity. Forest plots compared behavioral outcomes.

Results:

Scores for primary messages achieved inter-rater reliability of 91%-100%; curricula were scored on 20 items within each category to calculate mean scores. Spearman correlations for items ranged from .43 to .93.

Conclusions:

No outcome differences were observed between single- or multi-message programs. Effective delivery of primary messaging may rely more on identifying moderators of classroom climate typically underrepresented in evaluations of school-based programs.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 223-235(13)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.4

2021-06-30T21:24:23-06:00June 30th, 2021|Interventions, Sexual Health|

Engaging School and Family in Navajo Gardening for Health: Development of the Yéego Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating among Navajo Children

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Authors:

India J. Ornelas, PhD, MPH Twitter
Kassia Rudd, MEd
Sonia Bishop, BS
Desiree Deschenie, BS
Emily Brown, MPH
Kevin Lombard, PhD
Shirley A. A. Beresford, PhD

Objective:

Navajo children are at increased risk for obesity, in part due to limited access to healthy foods. School garden interventions increase access to fresh fruit and vegetables and consumption of healthy foods. Our study describes the development and pilot testing of a school garden intervention for Navajo elementary school children.

Methods:

We reviewed existing school garden interventions and conducted formative research with students, caregivers, and school staff to inform the intervention. The intervention consisted of a garden built at the school and a yearlong curriculum on gardening and healthy eating. We pilot-tested the intervention in an elementary school on the Navajo Nation.

Results:

Formative research revealed the importance of incorporating Diné culture, including traditional growing practices and the preparation of traditional foods into the curriculum. School staff also stressed the value of tying the curriculum to state and Diné educational standards. Students enjoyed opportunities for hands-on activities and snack preparation.

Conclusions:

Schools have a meaningful role to play in addressing childhood obesity disparities among Navajo children. School-based interventions that draw on cultural strengths and include healthy traditional practices can be a promising strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 212-222(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.3

2021-06-30T21:23:34-06:00June 30th, 2021|Community Health, Nutrition|

Can Eating Food Offered by Schools Have a Positive Influence on Nutritional Status of Children? An Example from Brazil

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Authors:

Daniel H. Bandoni, PhD Twitter
Daniela S. Canella, PhD Twitter

Objective:

Considering that the school environment can impact food consumption and children’s weight, our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the origin of foods consumed at school and children’s nutritional status.

Methods:

We used data from the nationally representative Brazilian Household Budget Survey of children under 10 years old. The relationship between consumption of foods at school and its origin (offered by the school; taken from home; bought at the canteens) and nutritional status were evaluated using linear (BMI-for-age) and logistic (excess weight and obesity) regression models stratified by type of school (private or public).

Results:

A total of 95.5% of children referred consumption of food at school, independent of its origin, and 28.0% had excess weight and 10.2% had obesity. In private schools, 70.7% of children ate food taken from home, whereas in public schools, 90.6% of children ate food offered by the school through a school food service program. According to adjusted analyses related to public schools, consuming food offered by the school decreased BMI-for-age and the odds of having obesity. No differences were verified among children from private schools.

Conclusions:

Eating food offered by public schools seems to be better for Brazilian children’s nutritional status.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 3, May 2021, pp. 202-211(10)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.3.2

2021-06-30T23:16:36-06:00June 30th, 2021|Nutrition, School Health|

The Intersection of Education and Healthcare: Supporting Children with Chronic Health Conditions

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Arnold Olszewski, PhD, CCC-SLP Twitter
Donna R. Scarborough, PhD, CCC-SLP
Gregory A. Szumlas, MD, FAAP

Objective:

Chronic health conditions in childhood have been negatively associated with linguistic, academic, and occupational outcomes. Traditionally, categorical diagnostic approaches relying on exclusionary criteria are used in healthcare services.

Methods:

This literature review examines research from various fields to evaluate the effects of chronic illness in cognitive-linguistic development in children. We explore the implications for different conceptualizations of the term “chronic illness.” We compare categorical and non-categorical diagnostic approaches, specifically in relation to children’s academic performance.

Results:

We provide recommendations for bridging the gap between healthcare and education to provide children with chronic conditions the best chance of thriving medically and academically. Definitions of chronic illness that rely on inclusive criteria and acknowledge individual variability seem best suited for clinical practice and research.

Conclusions:

Effective supports for children with chronic illness require evidence-based treatment approaches that are tailored to the unique needs of each individual child. Educators, healthcare providers, families, and related service providers must have open lines of communication to serve children with chronic health conditions. Early identification and intervention is crucial.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 2, March 2021, pp. 184-193(10)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.2.8

2021-04-29T21:50:23-06:00April 26th, 2021|Chronic Conditions, Research Methods, Youth|

School-level Factors and Consent Form Return Rate in a School-based Vision Program

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Holly Given, BS
Amanda Neitzel, PhD
Ahmed F. Shakarchi, MBChB, MPH
Megan E. Collins, MD, MPH Twitter

Objective:

School-based vision programs provide care directly in schools. Parental consent is typically required for student participation. In this paper, we examine school-level factors associated with consent form return.

Methods:

We included 123 schools served by a vision program in Baltimore, Maryland between the 2016-17 and 2018-19 school years. Multiple linear regression modeling was used to examine the associations between consent return rate and school type (elementary, elementary/middle or middle school), school size, student attendance, student mobility, percent of students in special education, poverty (percent eligible for free and reduced-price lunch), teacher qualifications, parent response rate to annual school climate survey, vision screening failure rate, and year of vision program participation (cohort).

Results:

The final model explained 26.2% of variability in consent return rate. Overall consent return rate was 57.8% (range 9.4%-100%). School size (β = -2.419, p < .01) and cohort (βCohort2 = 11.988, p < .01) were significantly associated with consent rate. Whereas poverty (β = 0.225, p < .10) and mobility (β = -0.647, p < .10) were relevant, they did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusions:

School-level factors are significantly associated with consent form return rates. School-based vision programs should consider additional measures to increase consent form return, especially in larger schools and schools with high rates of student mobility.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 2, March 2021, pp. 148-158(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.2.5

2021-04-30T14:04:40-06:00April 26th, 2021|Research Methods, Vision Health|
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