Open Access Articles

Indoor Carbon Monoxide Levels of Hookah Lounges

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Mary Martinasek PhD, RRT
Allison Calvanese, BS
Frederic B. Montz, BS
Nicole Tosto, BS
Kimberly Dobrinski, PhD, MLS (ASCP)

Objective:

Waterpipe tobacco smoking results in the inhalation of carcinogens, bacteria and heavy metals; however, despite the negative health effects, waterpipe tobacco smoking or hookah smoking continues to be a favored social smoking behavior for young adults. High levels of carbon monoxide can impair normal brain function and put individuals at increased health risk. The purpose of this study was to measure the carbon monoxide levels in the ambient air of 10 hookah lounges surrounding college campuses in the metropolitan area of Tampa, Florida.

Methods:

The study consisted of repeated measurements of ambient air carbon monoxide inside the hookah lounges over 4 hours during peak times of use.

Results:

Of the 10 hookah bars, 7 had levels above what is considered harmful to human health. These data provide evidence of high levels of CO produced in indoor hookah lounges that varied and were not predictable based on cigarette smoking allowed, ventilation systems, and whether doors were opened or closed.

Conclusions:

Stricter regulation is needed in hookah lounges to avoid toxic exposures by patrons.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 6, November 2022, pp. 1103-1110(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.6.3

2023-01-18T11:22:38-07:00January 18th, 2023|Tobacco|

Increasing and Retaining Tween Knowledge of Proper Medicine Use

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Leslie Bloom, MS
Leily Saadat-Lajevardi, MSEd, MBA
Andrew Myers, MD
Mary Kathryn Malone, MEd, MBA
Brenda Zimmerman, MS

Objective:

OTC Medicine Safety, a free, easily accessible, in-classroom educational program available through Young Minds Inspired (https://ymiclassroom.com/lesson-plans/otcmedsafety), was developed to improve adolescents’ knowledge of safe use of medicines. In a proof-of-concept study, students increased knowledge about safe, appropriate use of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. In this study, we assessed whether the OTC Medicine Safety program effectively increased students’ knowledge and if students retained this knowledge over time.

Methods:

We measured student knowledge before implementation (baseline, Quiz 1) immediately after implementation (Quiz 2), and 10 weeks after baseline (Quiz 3) in 3 test schools. We measured knowledge at similar intervals in 3 control schools (no program implementation).

Results:

Baseline knowledge was low (average 39.3% of 36 questions answered correctly). Among intervention schools, scores significantly improved immediately (average correct 62.9%) after implementation and were retained at 10 weeks (59.8%) (p < .001). Change in score from baseline among intervention schools immediately after the lesson implementation was significantly higher than corresponding changes from baseline among control schools (intervention: +23.0 vs control: -3.2) and at 10 weeks (intervention: +19.9 vs control: -2.9), p < .001.

Conclusions:

The OTC Medicine Safety Program effectively improved students’ knowledge of safe medicine-taking practices and students retained this knowledge at 10 weeks.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 6, November 2022, pp. 1128-1139(12)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.6.5

2023-01-18T11:21:19-07:00January 18th, 2023|Adolescents, School Health|

Smoking Intervention Practices in Texas Healthcare Centers with Sexual and Gender Minority Patients

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Matthew Taing, BS and Kathy Le, BA, Authors contributed equally
Maggie Britton, PhD
Tzuan A. Chen, PhD
Michael C. Parent, PhD
Irene Tamí-Maury, DrPH, DMD, MSc Isabel Martinez Leal, PhD
Anastasia Rogova, PhD
Bryce Kyburz, MA
Teresa Williams, MS
Mayuri Patel, MPH
Lorraine R. Reitzel, PhD, FAAHB, FSRNT

Objective:

We evaluated the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for smoking cessation in centers providing behavioral healthcare for patient populations that included some proportion of sexual and gender minorities (SGMs).

Methods:

Healthcare providers from 75 healthcare centers across Texas serving SGMs with behavioral health needs participated in a survey assessing their center’s tobacco control policies and practices.

Results:

Nearly half (N = 36) of participating centers had a comprehensive tobacco-free workplace policy, 30.67% employed ≥ 1 tobacco treatment specialist, 73.91% employed ≥ 1 prescriber, 80.82% mandated screening for patient tobacco use at intake, and 57.53% provided a template for tobacco use assessments. Overall, 70.67% of providers asked patients about smoking status, 69.33% advised patients to quit, 64.00% assessed patients’ interest in quitting, 58.67% assisted patients with quit attempts, and 36.00% arranged follow-up. Providers’ ability to tailor interventions for special populations like SGMs ranged from very low/0 to very high/10 (M = 4.63 + 2.59).

Conclusions:

There are opportunities to improve policy implementation, standardization and usage of evidence-based interventions, and intervention tailoring within settings providing care to SGM patients in Texas to address their tobacco use inequities.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 6, November 2022, pp. 1074-1088(15)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.6.1

2023-01-18T11:19:59-07:00January 18th, 2023|Tobacco|

Rural Cancer and the Opioid Epidemic: Are Screening Disparities Further Exacerbated?

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Minjee Lee, PhD, MPH
Georgia Mueller-Luckey, PhD, MS
Yamile Molina, PhD, MPH
Jennifer K. Rose, MD
Rebecca Bolinski, MA
Brent Van Ham, MS, RN, CRC, CADC
Eric Adjei Boakye, PhD, MA
Wiley D. Jenkins, PhD, MPH

Objective:

Rural areas experience significant disparities in cancer incidence and mortality and are also disproportionately impacted by the drug use epidemic. People who use drugs (PWUDs) frequently experience healthcare-associated stigma sufficient to cause avoidance of all non-urgent care. Research associated with cancer risk and screening utilization among rural PWUDs is nearly nonexistent.

Methods:

We searched PubMed for articles describing rural healthcare access and cancer disparities, and drug use and healthcare-associated stigma.

Results:

Rural populations frequently experience increased rates of circumstances and behaviors associated with increased cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality, but also lesser access to and use of healthcare. Rural areas have been disproportionately impacted by many types of drug use, and the stigma PWUDs frequently encounter leads to deferred care and poorer health outcomes. The limited data suggest that PWUDs experience at least equal cancer risk as their non-PWUD peers but obtain screening less often. Whereas interventions to increase medical care engagement among PWUDs have succeeded, none has explored cancer risk and screening.

Conclusions:

Although there are mechanisms to increase cancer screening in rural areas, and methods to increase healthcare engagement for PWUDs, re- search should combine these evidence-based practices to explore implementation in this population with distinct risk profiles.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 5, September 2022, pp. 1037-1043(7)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.5.3

2022-11-11T16:02:16-07:00November 11th, 2022|Cancer, Substance Use|

Engaging the Houston Community in Research: An Early Case Study of a Community Engagement Core in the University of Houston’s HEALTH Center for Addictions Research and Cancer Prevention

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Brian J. Carter, JD
Lorraine R. Reitzel, PhD
Tzuan A. Chen, PhD
LeChauncy Woodard, MD
Ezemenari M. Obasi, PhD

Objective:

The National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities-funded U54 Research Center at the University of Houston addresses disparate racial/ethnic health outcomes related to cancer and substance abuse. Of its 4 cores, the Community Engagement Core involves the impacted community in affiliated research. Strategies include implementing community advisory boards, assisting with study design and execution, maintaining a social media presence, and publishing health-related videos for the community. We examine the early effectiveness of these strategies.

Methods:

Data collection included surveying investigators and community advisory board members and monitoring traffic to videos and social media posts.

Results:

On a Likert scale survey of investigators (4 = “agree” and 5 = “strongly agree”), the mean rating for a prompt expressing satis- faction with services received was 4.67 (SD = 0.52; N = 6). On a Likert scale survey of community advisory board members, the mean rating for a prompt expressing belief that feedback was taken seriously was 5.00 (SD = 0.00; N = 9).

Conclusions:

The Community Engagement Core is build- ing trusting relationships between researchers and community members. We discuss lessons learned that may inform both our growth and others’ efforts to implement community-engaged research.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 5, September 2022, pp. 1017-1036(20)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.5.2

2022-11-11T15:54:28-07:00November 11th, 2022|Community Engagement, Community Health|

Taking Back the Narrative in Science and Public Health – The Challenge is Enormous (and Necessary)

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Robert J. McDermott, PhD, FASHA, FAAHB

Objective:

My objective in this essay is to explore how scientists and non-scientists might better align their views, and thereby decrease the divide that separates these groups in the advancement, dissemination, and acceptance of knowledge.

Methods:

Various points of disagreement between scientists and the general public are presented, including how political affiliation and education level may influence beliefs.

Results:

Evidence is presented of a deepening gap between scientists and the general public on several key issues. Evidence is presented of a decline in science aspirations among youth and in educational achievement in general in the United States. If these events are accurate, they are ones that may widen the divide further.

Conclusions:

Some examples for improving the communication of science are presented. However, other views are invited so that the dialogue can be raised in both the science and general public communities.

Please see Special Call For Papers “Taking Back The Narrative in Science and Public Health

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 5, September 2022, pp. 1009-1016(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.5.1

2022-11-11T15:54:48-07:00November 11th, 2022|Commentaries, Science|

Adolescents’ Nicotine/Tobacco Dependency Symptoms Using 4 Waves of PATH Data

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Carol J. Boyd, PhD Twitter
Sean Esteban McCabe, PhD
Rebecca J. Evans-Polce, PhD
Terri Voepel-Lewis, PhD
Clayton Shuman, PhD
Philip Veliz, PhD

Objective:

We aimed to characterize male and female adolescents’ use of e-cigarettes, cigarettes and dual use, and 7 symptoms of nicotine/tobacco dependence using 4 waves of national data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study.

Methods:

The analytic sample included 2902 adolescents 12-17 years old, who indicated past 30-day e-cigarette or cigarette use at least once between 2013-2018. We used items from the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) to report dependence symptoms.

Results:

Compared to cigarette users, exclusive e-cigarette users reported fewer symptoms of nicotine dependency. There were no differences between males and females concerning the odds of any reported dependency symptom. Among cigarette only users, the odds of indicating that their tobacco use helps them think better (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.08, 5.23) and wanting tobacco after waking up (AOR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10, 27.5) was higher among females versus males.

Conclusions:

These results extend earlier findings regarding subgroup differences in nicotine/tobacco dependency symptoms participating in the PATH Study and highlights the importance of identifying nicotine/tobacco dependency symptoms when counseling adolescent males and females.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 4, July 2022, pp. 980-995(16)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.4.6

2022-08-20T09:51:41-06:00August 20th, 2022|Adolescents, Tobacco|

Educational Discrimination of Honor Culture Men and the Impact of Sports, Key Demographics, and Affiliations

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Rebecca S. Merkin, PhD Twitter
Sigmund Shipp, PhD

Objective:

We identified predictors of educational discrimination among all races with a particular focus on the understudied white male population that has a lower socioeconomic status (SES).

Methods:

Employment of Bourdieu’s cultural capital theoretical framework, HSLS data, and hierarchical regression modeling, underlie this study that explored predictors of educational discrimination.

Results:

Playing sports does not impact experiences with educational discrimination. The higher the SES, the less likely people are discriminated against overall (r = -.20; p < .001) and in honor cultures (r = -.30; p < .001), but not in non-honor cultures. One- versus 2-parent homes, and the number of children a respondent has had no impact on perceived discrimination. Across all models, black, LatinX, and students of other races experience greater educational discrimination than their white peers. Members of all races in honor cultures experience educational discrimination. However, this relationship is also moderated by SES in that lower- income white honor culture males experience greater educational discrimination than their higher- income counterparts.

Conclusions:

Findings indicate that low SES is prominent in educational discrimination; consequently, inclusion programs to increase educational opportunities, as identified in Healthy People 2030, to help children and adolescents do well in school are warranted.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 4, July 2022, pp. 961-971(11)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.4.4

2022-08-20T09:52:31-06:00August 20th, 2022|Physical Activity, Youth|

School Nurses’ Perspectives of Bullying Involvement of Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Sally S. Cohen, PhD, RN, FAAN
Laura Grunin, MSN, RN
Timothy C. Guetterman, PhD, MA

Objective:

Our primary objective was to understand bullying as it pertains to middle school students with chronic physical or behavioral health conditions by examining it through the lens of school nurses. A second objective was to understand issues pertaining to implementation of New York’s bullying prevention law with a focus on these same students.

Methods:

We employed a qualitative descriptive design with purposive sampling to explore perspectives of school nurses in New York State who worked in public middle schools. Using a semi-structured protocol, we conducted audio-recorded telephone interviews that were transcribed for subsequent thematic analysis.

Results:

Twelve nurses agreed to be interviewed. Results revealed participants’ under- standing of bullying as related to students with chronic health conditions, especially those with behavioral health issues. Results also showed nurses’ limited understanding of New York’s bullying prevention law and missed opportunities for school nurses as champions of students with chronic health conditions who are bullied.

Conclusions:

Education and health care professionals should collaborate to disseminate information to school personnel about the risks of bullying for students with chronic health conditions and operationalize plans for prevention.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 3, May 2022, pp. 877-893(17)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.3.5

2022-06-11T16:22:28-06:00June 11th, 2022|Adolescents, Mental Health, School Health|

Effect of Emotional Distress Monitoring and Intervention in Preventing Non-suicidal Self-injury (NSSI) of College Students

An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Chunrong Chen, MPH, CHES
Xianrong Li, MS
Yu Deng, MPH, CHES

Objective:

In this study, we monitored and intervened in the emotional status of college students to understand the effect of intervention measures on the prevention and control of non-suicidal self-harm, and to provide a reference for the prevention and control of self-harm in college students.

Methods:

We conducted a baseline survey of 1832 first-year students across 3 vocational colleges in Chongqing, China in October 2019. In October 2020, we followed-up regarding the non- suicidal self-injury (NSSI) occurrences among our original respondents. During the year, students’ emotions were regularly monitored. The students who scored > 10 and had moderate suicidal thoughts were provided counseling to reduce their emotional stress. If the students could not reduce these emotions, their counselors contacted the school psychological center for professional counseling. If the school psychological counseling center diagnosed the students with severe depression, the counselors informed their parents and suggested hospital treatment.

Results:

The detection rate of NSSI history was 18.52% (320/1728), and the detection rate of the follow-up survey was 8.13% (137/1685); the difference in the detection rate was statistically significant (X2 = 128.3103, p < .001).

Conclusions:

Our results show that monitoring and intervening in college students’ emotional states can prevent the occurrence of NSSI behavior.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 3, May 2022, pp. 846-852(7)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.9.3.2

2022-06-11T16:17:57-06:00June 11th, 2022|College Health, Interventions, Mental Health|
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