The Gap between Perception and Reality: Obstacles to Public School Use of Produce from Small Local Farms in the Southeastern United States

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Kathryn A. Boys, PhD
Angela M. Fraser, PhD

Objective:

Connecting farms to school foodservice operations is complex. Our purposes in this study were to: (1) identify and assess self-reported benefits and challenges to procurement and use of produce purchased directly from small farms in school foodservice operations, and (2) determine if opinions about procurement from small farms significantly differs between those with and without experience purchasing these products.

Methods:

An online survey was conducted with child nutrition directors from 3 southeastern states in the United States. Statistical tests assessed differences in opinions between those with and without experience purchasing with these products.

Results:

Directors without experience understood the benefits but significantly overestimated the difficulty in obtaining and using these products. Experience shaped director perceptions regarding perceived procurement challenges related to contract terms, ordering challenges, food safety practices, and ability of small farms to supply foodservice needs.

Conclusions:

Challenges exist in procuring produce from small farms (eg, lack of coordinated ordering, delivery, and communications processes, insufficient availability of products, and limited value-added processing). Sourcing products directly from these farms is not as onerous as perceived to be. Bridging the identified information gaps could increase participation in farm-to-school programs.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 1, January 2021, pp. 13-27(15)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.1.2

2021-04-29T22:04:35-06:00February 22nd, 2021|Nutrition, School Health|

Zoom (Virtual) Happy Hours and Drinking During COVID-19 in the US An Exploratory Qualitative Study

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Sheila Pakdaman, MS Twitter
John D. Clapp, PhD, MSW

Objective:

In this study, we investigated video conferencing platforms (eg, Zoom) used as a means to gather virtually as a unique drinking environment during the pandemic.

Methods:

Using online recruitment strategies, we conducted 42 qualitative Zoom® interviews. Interviewees were 21-64 years of age from various locations in the United States.

Results:

During the pandemic, most individuals reported higher drinking intake to offset boredom and stress. As a drinking environment, video conferencing calls were perceived as poor substitutes for in-person drinking interactions.

Conclusions:

Our data suggest drinking behaviors and contexts changed during the pandemic restrictions, but virtual happy hours did not drive this change.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 8, Number 1, January 2021, pp. 3-12(10)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.8.1.1

2021-04-29T22:05:37-06:00February 22nd, 2021|Alcohol, COVID19|

Why it is Important for School-age Children to Have Breakfast – A Commentary

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Irene Rutigliano, MD
Gianpaolo De Filippo, MD, PhD
Angelo Campanozzi, MD

Objective:

In this commentary we emphasize the importance of breakfast for children, both from the point of view of proper nutritional education and as a strategy for the prevention of obesity.

Methods:

We reviewed the international literature, drawing particularly on information regarding the possible negative effects of skipping breakfast.

Results:

Obese children often do not eat breakfast and may face metabolic problems such as insulin resistance and hypercholesterolemia. The child who does not eat breakfast often becomes an adult who does not eat breakfast. The role of parents is fundamental in the acquisition of correct eating habits.

Conclusions:

The awareness that habits during childhood become elements of everyday life in adulthood, makes us understand the importance of the long-term consequences of skipping breakfast during childhood and adolescence.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 604-607(4)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.9

2021-04-29T22:06:41-06:00December 30th, 2020|Nutrition, Open Access|

Sex Differences in Body Mass Index, Mediterranean Diet Adherence, and Physical Activity Level among Italian Adolescents

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Francesca Mastorci, PhD
Cristina Doveri
Gabriele Trivellini
Anselmo Casu, BS
Luca Bastiani, BS
Alessandro Pingitore, MD, PhD,
Cristina Vassalle, PhD

Objective:

Unhealthy lifestyle habits during adolescence are linked to a higher risk of chronic degenerative disease during adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the lifestyle habits among Italian adolescents, considering the potential influence of sex.

Methods:

Data were collected from 1707 eligible students. Demographic, dietary, and lifestyle data were collected, by using KIDMED and PAQ-C instruments.

Results:

The overall population had a medium adherence to a Mediterranean diet (58%, KIDMED score: 2.11 ± 0.64). There was no statistically significant difference in adherence by sex. We found boys to be more physically active than girls (p < .001). Considering ponderal index status, boys had turned out to be more overweight and obese respectively (13% and 4% respect to 10% and 2% in female population, p < .05, respectively), due to the presence of only one risk factor (medium or low both in diet and in physical activity score).

Conclusions:

Our results showed that our population stands at average levels both for its adherence to the Mediterranean diet and for physical activity, with males having a higher percentage of overweight and obesity. Importantly, in contrast to girls, boys have a higher risk of obesity, also in the presence of a single risk factor.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 596-603(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.8

2021-04-29T22:08:00-06:00December 30th, 2020|Adolescents, Nutrition, Open Access, Physical Activity|

Assessing Fish to School Programs at 2 School Districts in Oregon

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Addison Virta, MPH, RD
David C. Love, MSPH, PhD

Objective:

Farm to school (FTS) programs provide many established benefits to students and the community; however, fish to school programs are a less studied subset of FTS. The objective was to identify how fish to school programs are implemented, their impacts, and the enabling factors to support these programs.

Methods:

We conducted formative research and interviewed stakeholders from 2 school districts in Oregon in 2019.

Results:

Interviewees reported benefits of connecting students and the larger school community with local food and creating excitement from new lunch offerings. Factors that facilitated fish to school programs included strong program leaders and partnerships, FTS grant funding, and the creative use of resources. Challenges in maintaining the program included sustainable program funding, seafood distribution networks, recipe development, and higher cost per serving of seafood compared to other proteins.

Conclusions:

Resources exist for school professionals interested in starting or sustaining fish to school programs. These programs are difficult to launch and sustain, and thus, require many forms of support (institutional, financial, industry, culinary, etc) and benefit from innovations like fish to school aggregators and product development such as pre-prepared fish options.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 557-569(13)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.5

2021-04-29T22:09:00-06:00December 30th, 2020|Nutrition, Open Access, School Health|

Healthcare Utilization and Perceived Health Status among Falun Gong Practitioners in Taiwan

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Yu-Whuei Hu, PhD
Li-Shan Huang, PhD
Eric J. Yeh, PhD
Mai He, MD, PhD

Objective:

Falun Gong (FLG) is a practice of mind and body focusing on moral character improvement that includes meditative exercises. In this study, we explored perceived health status, healthcare resource utilization, and related factors among Taiwanese FLG practitioners, compared to themselves before practicing FLG, and also to the general Taiwanese norm, as reported by the 2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Methods:

This cross-sectional study was based on a voluntary, paper-based survey conducted from October 2002 to February 2003 using the same Taiwanese SF-36 instrument employed by the NHIS. Primary outcomes included 8 SF-36 domain scores and the number of outpatient visits. One-sample t-tests, oneway ANOVA, and multivariate linear regression analyses were used.

Results:

The response rate was 75.6% (1210/1600). Compared to the norm, the study cohort had significantly higher scores in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains across sex and age (p < .05). Among those with chronic diseases, 70% to 89% reported that their conditions were improved or cured. Additionally, 74.2% and 79.2% participants stopped drinking alcohol and quit smoking; 62.7% reported decreased outpatient visits (mean before = 11.96; mean after = 5.87; norm = 14.4).

Conclusion:

In this cohort, FLG participants had higher perceived health scores than the population norm and reduced outpatient visits than before practice.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 6, December 2020, pp. 511-531(21)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.6.2

Professional Development for Elementary School Teachers in Nutrition Education: A Content Synthesis of 23 Initiatives

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Louisa R. Peralta, PhD Twitter
Thea Werkhoven, PhD
Wayne G. Cotton, PhD
Dean A. Dudley, PhD

Objective:

Although the importance of healthy eating is well known, eating patterns among school-aged children and adolescents rarely meet dietary guidelines. Schools are an effective and efficient setting for nutrition education; however, there is a dearth of research focusing on the key role of the teacher. In this study, we identified the role of professional development (PD) for elementary school teachers in delivering nutrition education programs.

Methods:

We used the results of a systematic literature search and meta-analysis to synthesize PD content reported in successful elementary school nutrition education programs (ie, ones reporting positive and significant changes in elementary school students’ nutritional outcomes).

Results:

Few studies provided evidence or methodologic descriptions of teacher PD. Of the 23 nutrition education programs assessed for descriptions of teacher PD, 14 provided print and electronic information or people resources, 12 detailed who delivered the teacher PD, and 11 described the PD duration.

Conclusion:

Our findings from this content synthesis suggest that whereas teachers can make improvements in nutritional outcomes, the teacher PD component is not only underreported but also understudied. Therefore, the role of teacher PD is not widely understood, particularly the extent to which teacher PD influences teacher pedagogical practices and student nutritional outcomes.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 5, October 2020, pp. 374-396(23)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.5.1

2021-04-29T22:11:07-06:00October 15th, 2020|Nutrition|

Oral Health and Mental Distress among Military Veteran Cancer Survivors: Insights from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Joan M. Davis, RDH, PhD
Justin T. McDaniel, PhD Twitter
Musa Yahaya, MBBS, MPH
Robert J. McDermott, PhD

Objective:

Mental health issues occur among service members and veterans (SMVs). A cancerdiagnosis exacerbates these issues. Many veterans with poor mental health lack adequate dental care. We examined oral health and mental distress among SMV cancer survivors.

Methods:

We retrieved data from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated theaverage number of mentally unhealthy days in the last 30 across categories of tooth removal (0, 1-5, ≥ 6 but not all, and all). We calculated state-based percentages of tooth removal (≥ 6 teeth) among SMV cancer survivors.

Results:

The greatest percentage of removal of ≥ 6 teeth among SMV cancer survivors occurred in Mississippi (50.3%), West Virginia (49.3%), and Kentucky (46.6%). Mental distress increased with the number of teeth removed. SMV cancer survivors with no history of tooth removal reported 2.08 mentally unhealthy days; 1-5 teeth removed, 2.34 days; ≥ 6 but not all, 3.20 days; and all teeth removed, 4.08 days.

Conclusion:

The history of ≥ 6 or more teeth removed increased SMV cancer survivor risk for mental distress. Tooth loss was particularly prevalent among veterans in the Mississippi Delta and Appalachia. Improving oral healthcare among veterans who are cancer survivors may reduce mental distress.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 5, October 2020, pp. 452-460(9)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.5.7

2021-04-29T22:12:07-06:00October 15th, 2020|Oral Health, Veterans|

COVID-19 and People Who Use Drugs – A Commentary

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Suzan M. Walters, PhD Twitter
David W. Seal, PhD, FAAHB
Thomas J. Stopka, PhD, MHS
Megan E. Murphy, BS
Wiley D. Jenkins, PhD, MPH, FACE

Objective:

People who use drugs (PWUD) face increased risk of exposure to COVID-19, but also elevated risk associated from injection drug use. We describe factors underlying their increased risk and identify mechanisms for reducing or minimizing rates of COVID-19 transmission and other health outcomes.

Methods:

Our commentary draws upon empirical data, governmental and other reports, and field-based unpublished data from our own studies to inform our conclusion and recommendations.

Results:

Co-morbid health conditions (eg, diabetes), structural challenges (eg, homelessness, criminal justice involvement), stigma (eg, social devaluation, discrediting), and syndemic clustering of of overdose, HCV, and HIV among PWUD are exacerbated by COVID-19.

Conclusion:

Beyond the many challenges all people face to remain safe and healthy during the COVID-19 pandemic, PWUD face additional barriers to remaining safe not only from COVID-19 but from negative health outcomes associated with their living environments, socioeconomic positions, and injection drug use. Collaborative efforts among governmental agencies, health providers, SSPs, CBOs, and other agencies providing services to PWUD is essential to the development of programs and services to meet the many needs of PWUD, which have been particularly accentuated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 5, October 2020, pp. 489-497(9)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.5.11

2021-04-29T22:13:10-06:00October 15th, 2020|COVID19, Substance Use|

When US and State Governments Go Viral: In-person Reopening of Schools during the COVID-19 Pandemic – and Then What? – A Commentary

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An Open Access article published in the Health Behavior and Policy Review Journal.
The full article is available as a PDF download.

Authors:

Robert J. McDermott, PhD Twitter

Objective:

In this commentary I argue that rapid reopening of schools for in-person instruction in the United States is unwise and likely to extend the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods:

I review various sources of information and raise issues less frequently and thoroughly addressed in noted plans to expedite school reopening.

Results:

Whereas the focus has been on preparing plans of action for in-person instruction on the first day of school that minimize risk to pupils and school personnel, aspects of these plans are operationally unsound. Additionally, opinions among school personnel and parents for rapid reopening are far from unanimous. Moreover, the potential health impact on teachers, bus drivers, and other school personnel, as well as pupils, and the potential for another shutdown are phenomena with real probability.

Conclusion:

Despite government-led arguments favoring rapid restoration of in-person instruction, I argue that school reopening should take a wiser approach, sustaining remote instruction until pandemic statistics place people at substantially reduced disease risk.

Source: Health Behavior and Policy Review, Volume 7, Number 4, July 2020, pp. 366-373(8)
Publisher: Paris Scholar Publishing Ltd.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.7.4.10

2021-04-29T22:14:12-06:00August 21st, 2020|COVID19, Open Access, School Health, Youth|
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